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Each of the following is a function of the integumentary system, except
excretion of salts and wastes.
provision of sensation.
protection of underlying tissue.
synthesis of vitamin C.
maintenance of body temperature

synthesis of vitamin c

The two components of the integumentary system are the
cutaneous membrane and accessory structures.
cutaneous membrane and hypodermis.
epidermis and superficial fascia.
epidermis and dermis.
integument and hypodermis.

cutaneous membrane and accessory structures

The tough "horny" superficial layer of the epidermis is known as the
stratum corneum.
stratum granulosum.
stratum germinativum.
stratum spinosum.
stratum lucidum.

stratum corneum

The type of cells that form the strata in the epidermis are
melanocytes.
fibroblasts.
adipocytes.
keratinocytes.
dendritic cells.

keratinocytes

Water loss due to evaporation of fluid that has penetrated through the skin is termed ________ perspiration.
sensible
insensible
latent
active
inactive

insensible

The layer of the epidermis that contains abundant desmosomes is the
stratum corneum.
stratum granulosum.
stratum spinosum.
stratum lucidum.
stratum germinativum

stratum spinosum

Characteristics of the epidermis include:
flexible
multilayered
serves as UV radiation protection
contains desmosomes
All of the answers are correct

all correct

The layer of stem cells that constantly divide to renew the epidermis is the
papillary layer.
stratum germinativum.
basal lamina.
stratum corneum.
stratum granulosum.

stratum germinativum

The protein that reduces water loss at the skin surface is
eleidin.
collagen.
keratin.
melanin.
mucin

keratin

Thin skin contains ________ layer(s) of keratinocytes, and thick skin contains ________ layers.
5; 6
3; 4
4; 5
2; 3
1; 2

4; 5

An albino individual lacks the ability to produce
melanin.
eleidin.
keratin.
carotene.
perspiration

melanin

The primary pigments contained in the epidermis are
xanthophyll and melanin.
melanin and chlorophyll.
carotene and xanthophyll.
carotene and melanin.
melanin and chromatin.

carotene and melanin

Exposure to ultraviolet light (sunlight) causes the skin to darken by increasing the production of
keratin.
melanin.
hemoglobin.
carotene.
collagen.

melanin

The pigment found in vegetables that can make the skin appear orange or yellow is called ________.

carotene

The skin appearance that results from dark-red hemoglobin is called _______

cyanosis

An important vitamin that is formed in the skin when it is exposed to sunlight is
vitamin B.
vitamin A.
vitamin D.
vitamin C.
vitamin E

vitamin D

Types of skin cancers include
squamous cell carcinoma.
malignant melanoma.
basal cell carcinoma.
actinic keratosis.
squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, and basal cell carcinoma.

squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanoma, basal cell carcinoma

A bruise turns "black and blue" because of ________ in the dermis.

broken blood vessels

Which of the following is NOT part of the cutaneous membrane?
epidermis
reticular layer
hypodermis
papillary layer

hypodermis

Which accessory structure is NOT found within the dermis?
sebaceous gland
arrector pili muscle
tactile corpuscle
lamellated corpuscle
All of the listed structures are found within the dermis

all

hat structures do you find within the hypodermis?
hair shaft and pores of sweat glands
sebaceous glands and sweat glands
hair follicles and arrector pili muscles
fat and the cutaneous plexus

fat and cutaneous plexus

he papillary layer is more superficial than the reticular layer of dermis. True or false?

true

Lanugo is found
on the palms of the hands and on the soles of the feet.
on the palms of the hands.
on a fetus.
on the scalp.
on the soles of the feet.

on a fetus

When the arrector pili muscles contract,
"goose bumps" are formed.
sweat is released from sweat glands.
shivering occurs.
the skin changes color.
hairs are shed.

goose bumps are formed

Fine hairs (like "velvet") that lack pigment and cover much of the body surface are called ________.

vellus hairs

Coarse pigmented hairs are called _______

terminal hairs

Earwax is produced by ________ glands.
apocrine sweat
eccrine sweat
sebaceous
ceruminous
merocrine sweat

ceruminous

Nail production occurs at the nail
root.
hyponychium.
bed.
body.
cuticle

root

The cuticle around a nail is the
lunula.
hyponychium.
eponychium.
free edge.
perinychium

eponychium

The stratum corneum just under the free-edge of a nail is the
nail root.
cuticle.
lunula.
eponychium.
hyponychium

hyponychium

In the condition known as erythema, the skin takes on a(n) ________ color

reddish

what is most abundant cell of epidermis

keratinocytes

five strata from basal lamina to free surface

basale
spinosum
granulosum
lucidum
corneum

which stratum layer forms bond between epidermis and dermis and forms fingerprints

basale

which stratum is exposed to surfuce of skin replaced ever 2 weeks

corneum

The formation of a layer of dead, protective cells filled with keratin

keratinization

insensible perspiration vs. sensible

evaporation/excretion

what do melanocytes do

protects skin from sun damage

what fibers in epithelial tissue

collagen
elastic

where are hair, hair follicles, sebacious glands, nails located

dermis

is the epidermis vascular or avascular

avascular

epidermal growth factor (EGF)

used in labs to produce skin grafts

where is dermis located

between epidermis and subcutaneous layer

the outer papillary layer and deep reticular layer form what skin structure

dermis

inflammation of the papillary layer

dermatitis

properties of flexibility and resiliance

skin turgor

very strong fibers resist stretching but bend easily, provide flexibility

collagen fibers

fibers that permit stretching and then recoil to original length, limit flexibility of collagen fibers to prevent damage to tissue

elastic fibers

what is the site of subcutaneous injections?

hypodermis

what glands lubricate the hair and control bacteria

sebacious

what types of hair are shed

club

sweat glands of armpits, in response to hormonal or nervous signal

apocrine

sweat glands on palms and soles functions to cool skin excrete water and electrolytes, sensible perspiration

merocrine

ceruminous glands produce:

earwax

what cells trigger an inflammatory response at site of injury

mast

what cells produce scar tissue

fibroblasts

keloid

raised scar

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