Physical Science-- atoms, molecules, and ions

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Atoms

Elements are composed of extremely small particles called? (#1 in Dalton's Atomic Theory)

#2 in Dalton's Atomic Theory

All atoms of a given elemen are identical, having the same size mass and chemical properties. The atoms of one element are different from the atoms of all other elements.

Compounds

______ are composed of atoms of more than one element. In any compound, the ratio of the numbers of atoms of any two of the elements present is either an integer or a simple fraction. (#3 in Dalton's Atomic Theory)

Chemical Reaction

A ______ involves only the seperation, combination, or rearrangement of atoms; it does not result in their creation or destruction. (#4 in Dalton's Atomic Theory)

Neutron

is neutral.

Atoms positive charge is concentrated in

the nucleus.

Proton

Positive

Electron

Negative

mass of p is ___ X the mass of e

1840

Atomic Number

number of protons in nucleus.

Mass Number

number of protons + number of neutrons OR atomic number + number of neutrons

Isotopes

are atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei.

The isotopes of hydrogen

same number protons, different numbers of neutrons theefore mass is different.

Natural abundance of elements in earths crust

oxygen 45.5%, silicon 27.2%, all others 5.3%, Magnesium 2.8%, Calcium 4.7%, Iron 6.2%, Aluminum 8.3%

Natural abundance of elemets in human body

Oxygen 65%, Carbon 18%, Al others 1.2%, Phosphorus 1.2%, Calcium 1.6%, Nitrogen 3%, Hydrogen 10%

Mendeleev

created the first periodic table. based on increasing atomic mass.

Moseley

Modern Periodic Table. Currently used table, based on increasing atomic number.

Molecule

an aggregate f wo or more atoms in a definite arrangement held together by chemical forces.

Diatomic Molecule

contains only two atoms.

Polyatomic Molecule

contains more than two atoms.

Ion

an atom, or goup of atoms,that has a net positive or negative charge.

Cation

ion with a positive charge. If a neutral atomloses one or more electrons it becomes a cation.

Anion

ion with a negative charge. If a neutral atom gains on ore more electrons it becomes an anion.

Monatomic ion

contains only one atom.

Polyatomic ion

contains more than one atom.

Molecular formula

shows the exact number of atoms of each element in the smallest unit of a substance.

Emirical formula

shows the simplest whole-number ratio of the atoms in a substance.

Ionic compounds

consists of a combination of cations and an anions.

Transition metal ionic compounds

indicate charge on metal with roman numerals

Acid

can be defined as a substance that yields hydrogen ions when dissolved in water.

Base

can be defined as a substance that yields hydroxide ions when dissolved in water.

Hydrates

compounds that have a specific number of water molecules attached to them.

Organic Chemistry

the branch of chemistry that deals with carbon compounds.

Precipitate

insoluale solid seperates from solution.

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