Absolutism and Constitutionalism

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Use this to study for the chapter on Absolutism and Constitutionalism in Europe. Good Luck!:)

James I.

In 1603 he became the king of England after childless Elizabeth's death. Former king of Scotland, mother was Mary Queen of Scots.

Problems James I inherited.

A large debt from Elizabeth I and a fiercely divided church.

James I and Parliament.

Only met when he called it, which was rarely. Instead to increase revenue he used impositions- levied new costum duties.

How James I raised money without Parliament.

Impositions- levied new costom duties, sold noble titles, increased costums duties, forced loans, and if a judge ruled against the Crown they were replaced.

James I and Puritans.

Puritans wanted to abolish elaborate church ceremonies and episcopal system. James declares intentions to maintain and enhance Anglican eposcopacy.

Problems James I created for himself.

Governed by favorites (Duke of Buckingham; possible lover). Duke controlled royal patronage and sold titles which angered nobles. He also forced skilled people out because they wouldn't conform.

James I's foreign policy.

It furthered opposition and doubt about his protestant loyalties. Peace with Spain was viewed by subjects as pro-Catholic. English troops help German Protestants in 30 Years' War. Son's marriage to Catholic Henrietta Marie (daughter of French Henry IV). 1624- war with Spain.

Charles I.

Son of James I, ruler of England from 1625-1649.

Extraparliamentary measures of Charles I.

He levied new tarrifs and duties, collected discontinued taxes, subjected property owners to a forced loan, home owners must quarter troops in private homes.

Reaction of Parliament to Charles I's extraparliamentary measeures.

Made Charles I sign Petition of Rights.

Petition of Rights.

No forced loans or taxation without consent of Parliament, no freeman imprisoned without due cause, and troops can't be billed in private homes.

Actions taken by Charles I and advisiors without Parliament.

Peace with France and Spain, people fear he is too friendly with Catholic Powers. Thomas Wentworth and Charles I impose strict efficiniency and administrative centralization, exploited all legal funds- raising devices used previously neglected laws and extend existing taxes into new areas.

Thomas Wentworth.

Chalres I's chief advisor.

Effects of war between England and Scotlands.

Charles must call Parliament in 1640, Parliament refused funds for war and dismissed Parliament. When reblesdefeated English forces at Newburn Charles reconvened Paliament.

Characteristics of Long Parliament (1640-1660)

Impeached and executed Stratford and Laud, ablolished courts and prohibited levying of new taxes without consent, must meet every 3 years and king cant disolve Parliament without consent. (Met with support) (1640-1660).

Trennial Act.

Parliament must meet once every 3 years and the King can't disolve Paliament without consent.

Civil War in England under Charles I.

Bishops and Book of Common Prayer in churches. Leader of English army (Parliament v.s. King).

Sides of Civil War in England.

Moderate Puritains (Presbyterians), Extreme Puritans (Independents), and Conservatives.

Factors of Parliamentary victories.

1.Alliance with Scotland in 1643. This committed Parliament to a Presbyterian system of Church government. 2. Reorganization of the Parliamentary army under Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell and "God's Men" will tolerate majority church if Protestants can worship outside it.

Prides's Purge.

Puritans eventually ran all the Presbyterians out of Parliament leaving Rump Parliament.

Actions of Rump Parliament.

Tried Charles II and sentenced him to death by beheading. After his death they abolished the monarchy altogether, disbanded the House of Lords, and established a Puritan common wealth under Oliver Cromwell.

Commonwealth.

Government with indirect democray. Loose affiliation of British controled states which led to the Oligarchy under Cromwell.

Cavaliers.

Supporters of Charles I and the monarchy in the English Civil War.

Roundheads.

Supporters of Parliament in the English Civil War.

Puritan Republic.

1649-1660 dominated primarily be Oliver Cromwell, no longer any monarchy during this time.

Oliver Cromwell.

He and his army brutally conquered Scotland and Ireland; armies commit atrocities against Irish Catholics. Disbanded Parliament and became Lord Protector. He was a Puritan and he made drinking, gambling, dancing, sports, and theater illegal. Political liberties vanished in the name of religious unity. Forms commonwealth.

Charles II.

King of England from 1160-1685. Comes to power to re-instate Stuart monarchy after Cromwell and commonwealth.

Beliefs of Charles II.

Religious tolerance; allow loyal Catholics and Puritans to worship freely.

Relationship between Charles II and Parliament.

Parliament met only when he summoned it, he was very suspicious of Parliament.

Claredon Code.

Passed by royalists in Parliament between 1661 and 1665 which exculded Roman Catholics, Presbyterians, and Independents from the official reigious and political life of England.

Navigation Acts.

Said English goods may only be carried on English ships. This angered other countries and led to them no longer trading with England.

Test Act.

Requires all civil and military officials of the Crown to swear an oath against the doctrine of transubstantiation.

Popish Plot.

Titus Oates says Charles' wife is plotting with Jesuits to kill Charles so James could assume the throne. Parliament believes him.

Charles II and Louis XIV.

Treaty of Dover, uses Louis XIV's assistance for extra income for England.

Treaty of Dover

Alliance with between France and England, England converted to Catholicism and Louis XIV will pay substantial subsidy.

James II.

King of England from 1685-1688.

James II's and Parliament.

When he doesn't agree with Parliament he dissolves Parliament and rules without it; appoints Catholics to high positions, Declaration of Indulgence.

Declaration of Indulgence.

Suspended all religious tests and allows free worship.

James II's goal of Absolutism.

Aid fellow Roman Catholics and attack local authority (nobles, landowners, churches, and corperate bodies) and to be like Louis XIV.

Glorious Revolution.

Parliament invited William of Orange to invade England with armies to preserve traditional liberties (Parlaimentary government and Anglican Church). William and armies recieved with popular support. James II fled to France and Parlaiment names William of Orange II and his wife Marie as new monarchs.

Lessons Louis XIV learned from Henry IV and the Duke of Sully.

Henry IV rebuilt and stabalized a destroyed France, lowered taxes for peasants and introduces pauletter tax. Henry and Sully set growth of state power; combined direct taxes on salt, sales, and transit and gave to financers, lowered taxes, increased revenue because revival of trade, rebuilt country (roads ect). Henrywanted to heal a religously divided church.

Lessons Lousi XIV learned from Louis XII.

Decided to end Protestant military and political independence and captured La Rochelle which led to the Fronde. He Learned to allow religious peace and tolerance.

Lessons Louis XIV learned from Cardinal Richelieu.

Attempted to impose royal administration on France, took away privleges of Protestant from Edict of Nantes which led to Fronde. He learned heavy handed policies endangered the throne and he assured nobles and social elities of thier social standing and influence while the monarchy was still the most important.

Foreign policy under Louis XIV.

To achieve secure internaional boundaries for France.

Richelieu resented among nobility because.

He wanted to subordinate these groups tyo monarchy because he felt they had biggest power and he wanted to crb thier power and strengthen royal control.

Fronde and Louis XIV.

Convinced Louis XIV and advisers that heavy handed actions would endanger the throne.

Effect of Louis XIV ruling without a single chief minister.

Rebellious nobles could no longer hide by saying they were resisting a bad minister but only resist the king directly.

Louis XIV.

King of France from 1643 to 1715. Ruling without a single chief minister, strategies followed to becoming a strong leader, and source of royal concept being divine right.

Strategies Louis XIV used to become a strong ruler.

Curtail Parlaiment's power, nobles depend on monarchs for housing at Versailles, intimadate with magnificent palace (outspending nobles and great social displays), never threaten power of nobles socially or politically.

Source of Louis XIV's concept of royal authority.

King by Divine Right.

Bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet.

Justified divine right for Louis XIV.

Louis's absolutism.

Made war and peace, regulated religion, oversaw economic activities, let local institutions retain authority and never interfeared with local elite.

Versailles.

Magnificent palace used by Louis XIV. Lead to significant debt for successors.

Louis XIV and Versailles.

Used to demonstrate Louis's power and centralized power of monarch, kept nobility under his control (housing), and had a place to run all political buisiness.

Louis XIV controlled nobles.

They wanted to be housed at Versailles; payed a lot of $ to stay there so they depleated thier funds. Limited the power of noble institutions on monarchy but not locally. Some nobles had to use royal patrongageto remain at Versailles which led to dependence on monarch.

Louis XIV's and in religious unity.

Political unity and stability requires religious uniformity and repressed Roman Catholics.

Jansenism.

Roman Catholic religious movement arose in 1630s in opposition to theology and political influence of Jesuits. Follow teachings of St. Augustine used in many Protestant docctrines. Opposed Jesuit teaching of free will.

Louis XIV suppressed Jansentists.

Suppression because nobles supported them and not the monarchy; endangered his rule and some Jansentist families were involved in the Fronde.

Actions of Jean-Baptiste Colbert.

Central principle was that the wealth and economy of the state should serve France; applied mercantalism. This allowed Louis XIV to build/maintain a large, powerful army.

Mercantilism.

Economic activites are made by and for the state (money used to help France).

Marquis of Louvois.

Louis XIV's war minister from 1677 to 1691.

Contributins of Marquis of Louvois to Louis XIV's military.

Created a preffesional army that only employed soldiers which led to a strong army.

War of Devolution.

Louis XIV supported the alleged right of first wife, Marie The're'se, to inherit Spanish Netherlands.

Causes of War of Devolution.

Louis believed the Netherlands should have "devolved" to Marie The're'se.

Results of War of Devolution.

Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.

Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle.

Treaty that ended the War of Devolution, Louis gained control of certain towns bordering Spainish Netherlands.

Causes of Invasion of Netherlands.

Treaty of Dover.

Treaty of Dover.

England and France become allies against the Dutch.

Role of William of Orange in the Invasion of the Netherlands.

He forged an alliance with the Holy Roman Emperor, Spain, Lorrain, and Brandenburg against Louis XIV.

Louis's actions towards the Huguenots.

Louis launched a methodical campaign against the Huguenots for a unified French religion.

Results of the Revoction of the Edict of Nantes (1685).

Extensive religious repression; Protestant churches/schools closed, ministers exiled, nonconverted laity condemned the be galley slaves, and Protestant children were Baptised by Catholic Priests. Protestants all over Europe regarded Louis XIV as a fanatic they must resist. 1/4 million skilled people left, formed new communites, and joined resistances to Louis XIV with Eng, Germany, Scot, Holland, and New World.

Effect of Revoction of Edict of Nantes and Persecution of Jansenists.

France becomes a symbol of religious repression.

League of Augsburg.

Defensive coalation against Louis XIV consisting of England, Spain, Sweden, United Provinces, and the majority of the German States. Had support of Habsburg Emperor Leopold I.

Nine Years' War (1689- 1697).

War between League of Augsburg and France.

Causes of the Nine Years' War.

Louis kept his army at full strength and probed beyond his borders. His forced occupied Strasburg which led to teh formation of the League of Augsburg.

Results of the Nine Years' War.

Peace of Ryswick.

Peace of Ryswick (1697).

Ended the Nine Years' War, secured Hollands boreders and thwarted Louis' expansion into Germany.

War of the Spanish Succession (1701-1714).

A war between France and the Grand Alliance over the rightful heir to the Spanish throne.

Grand Alliance.

England, Holland and France form an alliance to preserve balance of power and ti secure Flanders as a neutral barrier between France and Holland and gain emperor's fair share of Spanish inheritance.

Causes of the War of Spanish Succession.

Charles II of Spain dies without an heir, formation of Grand Alliance, Louis increases political stakes be recognizing Stuart claims to English throne.

Results of the War of Spanish Succession.

Treaty of Utrecht, Treat of Rastadt, Philip V still king of Spain, Englands got Gibraltar and island of Minorca (now a Mediteranean power) Louis recognized the right of the House of Hanover to the English throne.

Treaty of Utrech (1713).

France made peace with England.

Treaty of Rastadt (1714).

France made peace with Holland.

Positive Effects of Louis XIV's Legacy.

Permanent, strong army, monarchy has a strong lineage, Versailles (culural influence in Europe and control of nobility), strong leadership (quick end to rebellions), and advances but troubles economy (mercantilism).

Negative Effects of Louis XIV's Legacy.

Resources drained by Louis XIV's last wars, Louis's rule corrupt (lesser rulers after him), disgrace on governemtn who emploed Law because Mississipi Bubble, fear of paper money ans speculation, Nobility wants to use authority to limit power of monarchy, Duke of Orleans attemps to get nobility back into decision making proccess of governemtn, Parlement, reinstate Parlaiment/ Parlements with more power to represent nation than monarchy, Cardinal Fleury couldn't prevent France from entering a world wide colonial conflict.

Parlements

Courts dominated by nobility (worked best).

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