A group of cells working together to perform a specific function.
What are the four major types of tissues?
epithelial, connective, muscle, and nervous
What are some basic characteristics of epithelial tissue?
-cover and protect organs
-always have one free or exposed surface
-lack blood vessels
-divide easily and rapidly
-tightly packed with little intercellular space
Distinguish between squamous, cuboidal, and columnar epithelium.
squamous - flat cell
cuboidal - cube-shaped cell
columnar - column-shaped cell
Distinguish between simple, stratified, and pseudostratified epithelium.
simple - single layer of cells
stratified - more than one layer of cells
pseudostratified - appear to be layered but are not
What type of epithelium is specialized to change in response to increased tension?
What is keratinization and where does it occur?
Cells accumulate keratin. They harden and die. This produces a hard, tough protective material.
outer layer of skin
What type of gland secretes its products into ducts that open on to an internal or external surface?
Where do endocrine glands secrete their products?
into tissue fluid or blood
What is carcinoma?
cancer that originated in the epithelium (ex. skin, airways, stomach, intestines)
What are the 3 types of exocrine glands and how are they classified?
merocrine - release watery, protein rich fluids by exocytosis (ex. pancreatic gland)
apocrine - lose small portions of their glandular cell bodies during secretion (ex. mammary gland)
holocrine - entire cell lyses during secretion (ex. sebaceous gland)
What type of connective tissue releases heparin and histamine?
What type produces fibers?
What is phagocytosis?
process of eating damaged cells (macrophages do this)
What types are responsible for phagocytosis?
Which of the types of connective tissue cells are known as wandering cells?
What does the term "wandering" mean?
number of cells is unstable, can reproduce and go very high or stay at normal amount
What are the 3 types of fiber produced by fibroblasts?
collagenous fibers, elastic fibers, and reticular fibers
What type of tissue is fat tissue?
What are the functions of adipose tissue?
stores energy, cushions joints and some organs
Intercellular material is known as what?
What are osteocytes?
What are chondrocytes?
What surrounds cartilage and supplies it with nutrients?
Why is cartilage slow to heal?
no direct blood supply
Distinguish between ligaments and tendons.
ligaments - bone to bone
tendons - muscle to bone
Which of the four major tissue types is blood considered to be?
What are the 2 main components of blood?
cells and plasma (liquid portion, mostly water)
What are the 3 types of blood cells that make up blood and what is the function of each?
white blood cells - fight diseases
red blood cells - transport oxygen
platelets - clot blood
Erythrocytes are also known as what?
red blood cells
Leukocytes are also known as what?
white blood cells
What are the 3 types of muscular tissue?
skeletal muscle tissue, smooth muscle tissue, and cardiac muscle tissue
Which of the three muscle tissues is voluntary?
skeletal muscle tissue
What does "voluntary" mean?
can be controlled by conscious effort
Where is smooth muscle tissue found?
walls of internal organs (ex. stomach, intestines, blood vessels)
Alternating strands of light and dark found in some types of muscle tissue.
Which of the muscle tissue types have striations?
skeletal muscle tissue and cardiac muscle tissue
Which of the muscle types have a single nucleus?
smooth muscle tissue and cardiac muscle tissue
Which type of muscle tissue is found only in the heart?
cardiac muscle tissue
Which type of muscle tissue does not regenerate?
cardiac muscle tissue
The basic cells of nervous tissue are called what?
What do neuroglial cells do?
support and bind components of nervous tissue, carry on phagocytosis, and help supply nutrients to neurons by connecting them to blood vessels
What is the common name for myocardial infarction (MI)?
What is the common name for a cerebral infarction?
What causes MI?
smoking, lack of exercise, high cholesterol, and unhealthy diet
What are some procedures that can reduce the likelihood of a MI?
angioplasty, heart stent procedure, and coronary bypass surgery