2nd Continental Congress
The congress met in Philadelphia on May 10, 1775. Three delegatres added to the Congress were Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson, and John Hancock. The Congress took on governmental duties and united all the colonies for the war effort. They selected George Washington as commender of the army. They encouraged the colonies to set themselves up as states. On July 4, 1776 they adopted the Declaration of Independence. The Congress ended March 1, 1781 when a Congress authorized by the Articles of Confederation took over.
agreement stating that only 3/5 of the slaves in a state would count when determining a states population for representation in the lower house of congress
Democrat- Illinois Senior Senator (Election term began in 2008)
Republican- Illinois Senior Senator (Election term began in 2010)
Illinois Congressmen- 18th
Illinois Congressmen- 19th
Speaker of the House- Republican -Ohio
Vice President- President of the Senate- Democrat
Minority Leader in the Congress- Democrat California
Majority Leader in the Senate
step 1: amendment proposed by 2/3 vote of both houses of congress OR a constitutional convention called by congress on petition of 2/3 out of 50 states. THEN amendment ratified by 3/4 of the 50 state legislatures OR 3/4 of special constitutional conventions called by 50 states THEN the new amendment!
opponents of a strong central government who campaigned against the ratification of the Constitution in favor of a confederation of independant states
Led by Alexander Hamilton, the Federalists believed in a strong central government, loose interpretation, and encouraged commerce and manufacturing. They were staunch supporters of the Constitution during ratification and were a political force during the early years of the United States. The Federalist influence declined after the election of Republican Thomas Jefferson to the presidency and disappeared completely after the Hartford Convention.
Article of the Constitution that defines the Legislative Branch, it's powers, members, and workings.
Necesssary and Proper Clause(elastic clause)
Necessary and Proper Clause (Article 1)
allows congress the power to pass all laws that are necessary and proper. They carry out enumerated powers
Enumerated Powers (Article 1)
17 POWERS IN ALL- Powers specifically given to Congress in the Constitution; including the power to collect taxes, coin money, regulate foreign and interstate commerce, and declare war.
Implied Powers (Article 1)
Powers derived from enumerated powers, necessary and proper clause. They are not stated specifically
The Executive Branch
The Judicial Branch
Full Faith and Credit Clause
Full Faith and Credit Clause
Constitution's requirement that each state accept the public acts, records, and judicial proceedings of every other state
Outlines how amendments, or changes, to the Constitution are to be made.
How many votes does it take to propose an amendment?
How many votes does it take to ratify an amendment?
What two garrentees does Article 5 make?
No amendment made untill atleast 1880 involving slavery, No state without its consent, can be deprived of equal representation in the Senate.
Supreme Law of the Land (supremecy clause)
9 out of 13 States must ratify the constitution
Bill of Rights
Branches of Government
Legislative(House and Senate), Executive, Judicial
Civil War Amendments
powers that are shared by both the federal and state governments
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house
The meeting of state delegates in 1787 in Philadelphia called to revise the Articles of Confederation. It instead designed a new plan of government, the US Constitution.
checks and balances
gives each of the 3 branches of government some degree of oversight and control over the action of the others
Declaration of Independence
Written by Thomas Jefferson, signed July 4, 1776 by the Second Continental Congress. DECLARED INDEPENDENCE FROM BRITIAN
powers that the government cannot do; powers are expressely, silently, or inherently denied
being tried twice for the same crime AMENDMENT 5
the part of the Constitution that permits Congress to make any laws "necessary and proper" to carrying out its powers
ALSO KNOWN AS THE NECESSARY AND PROPER CLAUSE!!!!
group of persons chosen in each state and the district of columbia every four years who make a formal selection of the president and vice president
Allows the govt to take property for public use but also requires the govt to provide just compensation for that property
an agreement between the President and the leader of another country
specific powers granted to Congress in the Constitution-ENUMERATED POWERS
a system in which power is divided between the national and state governments
French and Indian War
a war in North America between France and Britain (both aided by indian tribes)
a group of citizens that decides whether there is sufficient evidence to accuse someone of a crime
an interpretation of the U.S. constitution holding that the spirit of the times and the needs of the nation can legitimately influence judicial decisions (particularly decisions of the Supreme Court)
A judicial philosophy in which judges play minimal policymaking roles, leaving that duty strictly to the legislatures.
the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional
the authority of a court to hear a case "in the first instance"
The jurisdiction of courts that hear cases brought to them on appeal from lower courts. These courts do not review the factual record, only the legal issues involved.
Marbury v. Madison
The 1803 case in which Chief Justice John Marshall and his associates first asserted the right of the Supreme Court to determine the meaning of the U.S. Constitution. The decision established the Court's power of judicial review over acts of Congress, (the Judiciary Act of 1789).
Marbury v. Madison
(1803) Marbury was a midnight appointee of the Adams administration and sued Madison for commission. Chief Justice Marshall said the law that gave the courts the power to rule over this issue was unconstitutional. established judicial review
McCullock v. Maryland
(1819)Case in which Maryland tried to collect taxes from federal banks, judge ruled that the federal banks only had to pay taxes to the federal government. Judge used necessary and proper clause in constitution
What did the Supreme Court use as evidence in McCullock v. Maryland
Necessary and proper clause. STATES DID NOT HAVE RIGHT TO COIN MONEY
New Jersey Plan
Opposite of the Virginia Plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states.
the notion that power lies with the people
President of the Senate