Society without government/absence of hierarchy: Single accepted authority enforcing law and monopolizing the means of coercion.
International System (3 kinds)
Imperial System, Feudal System, and Westphalian System.
The reliance on economic and military strength to solve international problems.
The capacity to command global influence when a country's culture, ideas and institutions are valued by most other countries
Instrumentalities available that permit the effective use of power that achieve the desired results.
The capacity to convert power, measured by resources, into realized power, as measured by the change in behavior of others.
A protracted (431-404 B.C.E.) and costly conflict between the Athenian and Spartan alliance systems that convulsed most of the Greek world. The war was largely a consequence of Athenian imperialism. Possession of a naval empire allowed Athens to fight a war of attrition. Ultimately, Sparta prevailed because of Athenian errors and Persian financial support.
Thirty Years' War
Protestant rebellion against the Holy Roman Empire ends with Peace of Westphalia.(1618-48) A series of European wars that were partially a Catholic-Protestant religious conflict. It was primarily a batlte between France and their rivals the Hapsburg's, rulers of the Holy Roman Empire.
The Peace of Westphalia
(1648) is the collective name for two treaties ending the Thirty Years' War that were signed by the Holy Roman Empire, minor German states, Spain, France, Sweden, and the Dutch Republic. It confirmed the principle of "cuius regio eius religio" (that a ruler's religion determined that of his country) introduced by the Peace of Augsburg, but mandated relative tolerance of other (Christian) faiths. It adjusted the borders of German states and strengthened their princes with respect to the Emperor and transferred most of Lorraine and some of Alsace to France.
States were empowered to make treaties with one another and foreign powers; emperor's power was little; no central authority; lead to growth of individual german powers.
The principle that external powers should not intervene in the domestic affairs of sovereign states.
Social situation in which one person's gains are subtracted from another person's resources, so that the total of gains & losses = nothing.
The type of game in which actors have incentives that may overlap or contradict their partners.
A situation in which all countries can benefit even if some benefit more than others.
A type of dilemma in which one party must make either cooperative or competitive moves in relation to another party. The dilemma is typically designed so that the competitive move appears to be in one's self-interest, but if both sides make this move, they both suffer more than if they had both cooperated.
The total benefits that accrue to a state as a consequence of its interactions with other states without regard to the benefits that accrue to others. Liberals argue that states are most concerned with absolute gains and that they provide a basis for cooperation in world politics.
One of the factors that realists argue constrain the willingness of states to cooperate. States are less concerned about whether everyone benefits (absolute gains) and more concerned about whether someone may benefit more than someone else.
A lesson learned by leaders after WWII that held that, contrary to the spiral model, appeasement was one of the surest ways to cause war. Instead, offending states should be deterred from being aggressive.
Model used for risky systems that have never been developed before. Risks are explicitly assessed and resolved throughout the process.
A condition in which countries have strong economic ties and depend on each other for resources, technology, trade, and investment
The theory that democratic nations for the most part do not go to war with one another, making the spread of democracy desirable.
A security arrangement in which all states cooperate collectively to provide security for all by the actions of all against any states within the groups which might challenge the existing order by using sanctions and force.