Articles of Confederation
They loosely bound the thirteen states in a confederacy that eventually proved incredibly weak.
What did the Articles of Confederation let the Congress do?
negotiate treaties, declare war, make peace, coin money, issue loans, maintain an army and navy, operate a postal service, resolve disputes among the states, anf govern western territories for the befit of all states.
The Land Ordinance of 1785
helped the gov't survey lands. It created townships each six miles squares, that divided into thirty-six square-mile sections and auctioned off.
The Northwest Ordinace of 1787
a western territory could apply for full statehood as soon as it had the same number of people as the least populous of the original thirteen states.
Lead by Daniel Shays protester attacked Massachusetts' courthous to prevent local judges from foreclosing on farms.
1787, resulted in the United States Constitution. a meeting of delegates to adopt a new constitution or revise an existing constitution
3 distinct branches: legislative (Congress), executive (president), judicial (supreme court)
Separation of Powers
the idea that separating power into 3 different branches would prevent tyranny over the states
the creation of a bicameral national legislature, or a new congress with an upper and a lower house. The number of representatives per state would be based on population.
New Jersey Plan or "small state plan"
the creation of a unicameral legislature in which all states would have the same number of representatives
The Great Compromise
The new congress would have 2 houses, a senate in which all states would be represented by 2 senators, and a lower house of representatives in which the number of delegates would be apportioned based on population.
The three-fifth compromise
slaves are counted as three-fifths a person for taxation and representation
What job does the president have?
to serve as comander in chief of the army and navy, to appoint judges to all federal courts, to veto legislation passed by Congress
consists of the popularly elected representatives ("electors") who formally elect the President and Vice President of the United States.
checks and balances
each branch of government has the ability to check the powers of the others in order to prevent one branch from dominating the others.
favored a weaker central government in favor of stronger state legislatures (poorer classes)
The Fifth Amendment
guarantees due process of law in criminal cases and freedom from self-incrimination
The Ninth Amendment
stipulates that the people have other rights besides those specifically mentioned in the Constituation or Bill of Rights
Judiciary Act of 1789
established a federal court system with thirteen district courts, three circuit courts, and a Supreme Court presided over by 6 justices.
The Bank of the Unites States
a bank that safely stored gov't funds and tied wealthy Americans' interests to the stability of the federal gov't
believed that the constitution forbade everything it didn't expressly permit
led by Adams, Hamilton, and Marshall; associated with aristocracy; encouraged the development of industry; favored an alliance with Great Britain; Championed a strong central gov't at the expence of individual states.
Led by Jefferson and Madison; associated with the masses; encouraged the development of agriculture; favored an alliance with France; championed a weak central government in favor of strengthening the states.
Indian Intercourse Act
1790, Congress would regulate all trade with Native American and that U.S. would only aquire new western lands only via official treaties.
The Battle of Fallen Timbers
1794, struggle between American Indians and the United States for control of the Northwest Territory
1794, between the United States and Great Britain averted war, solved many issues left over from the American Revolution, and opened ten years of largely peaceful trade in the midst of the French Revolutionary Wars.
Washington's Farewell Address
Washington refused to run for a third term, 1796 he read his farewell address. He urged Americans not to become embroiled in euro affaird and warned against dangers of faction political parties
The Election of 1796
2 candidates: Vice President John Adams (federalist) and Thomas Jefferson (democratic-republican). Adams won
The XYZ Affair
was a diplomatic episode in 1798 that worsened relations between France and the United States and led to the undeclared Quasi-War of 1798.
The Alien Act
extended the time required for foreigners to become American citizens from five years to fourteen year and gave Congress power to expell aliens
The Sedition Act
banned public criticism of the president and congress and was used to silence Democratic-Republican newspapers.