superior courts that controlled the 10 judicial divisons when the viceroyalties of New Spain and Peru were subdivided, staffed by professional royal magistrates who made and applied laws. S: bc gave judicial branch power to apply laws, collect taxes, and assign the work required for American Indian communities despite taking adv of them
Bartolome de las Casas
Spanish friar who traveled to the New World during the 1500's, first resident bishop of Chiapas and argued against the mistreatment of the native American peoples, recorded early colonial history
Administrative divisions of the Spanish/Portuguese empires in the New World, govened by capt gen, allowed Spain & Portugal to create more centralization and colonization in the New World and control colonies w European standards
descendants of Spanish settlers born in LA, 2nd highest on social pyramid, below native Spaniards. Their social inferiority to native Spaniards shows the effect ethnicity and race had on the social structure of LA
Spanish Conquistador who discovered & conquered Inca Kingdom in 1531. Made governor of the lands that he conquered. Pizarro's men decimated the native pop w/ violence & w/ the unfamiliar pathogens they carried.
large ships used by Spain to ship and deliver silver from its American colonies for trade, heavily armed, part of huge Spanish convoys from Manila to Mexico full of imported goods. Delivered American goods and silver to Spain. Occasionally attacked.
Royal estates in the Spanish Colonies that provided ag products for people in America, basis of wealth & power for the local aristocracy. An endemic rivalry between village communities and haciendas emerged in some regions.
first island in the Caribbean to be settled by Spaniards, established on Chris Columbus's 2nd expedition, became the base station for further expansion and exploration into the Americas
Aztec ruler at the time of the Spanish invasion. He allowed the Spanish into the general area before he was killed by them.
A viceroyalty of Spain; it was mostly central Mexico, but also included parts of Panama and southern and southwestern America S: 1 of 1st Spanish colonies; based upon the imperial system of the Aztecs
Portuguese navigator. discovered Brazil in 1500 on an expedition to settle permanent trading posts in India. followed de Gama but was blown off course. Landed in Brazil. explored land and christened it Terra de Vera Cruz for Portugal.
Native Spaniards- highest class. demonstrate western POV and class division
collection of codes from the Spanish empire in 1681. The body of laws was put together under Charles II, for all of the Spanish possessions in the New World. S:codified the many, contradicting laws into a platform for government in the colonies.
Spaniards begin encomienda system w/ Taino. Cities in Carib were test grounds for cultural blending, development of city grids. W/ development of the slave trade and sugar plantations forts became settlements and expanded into cities. By the time the Native American slave were set free after 30 years most of their population had died or been killed. The Caribbean provided Spain with the opportunity to experiment with new ideas and concepts and provided them with a steady revenue of cash from plantations and small amounts of gold.
Treaty of Tordesillas
(1494) between Castile (Spain) and Portugal was a treaty that clarified the spheres of influence and right of possession of the two kingdoms of Spain and Portugal by drawing a hypothetical north-south line around the globe and reserving the newly discovered lands to the east of the line (and their route to India) to Portugal and reserved all of the lands west of the line to Castile. S: Gave Brazil Portugal
administers the new colonies for monarch. The viceroy is the officer who takes the position of viceroyalty. There were many viceroyalties in colonized Latin America that belonged to countries in Europe such as Spain and Portugal. Some of the colony boundaries of that time helped shape today's country lines.
War of Spanish Succession
led to Bourbons taking Spanish throne. fighting through out Europe to rule on Spanish throne (England, Austria, France, Holland, Ger, etc). Treaty of Ultrecht ended it, led to Bourbon reforms, some changes in land possession, right of Brit and Fr to trade things like slaves and silver to LA, commercially weakened Spain.
South Africans in the Dutch EIC's Cape Hope Colony during the 17th Century. These colonies were founded by the Dutch East India Company, aka Boers. Conflicted w/ natives, enslaving them and taking land, making them work it
Africa empire formed in the Gold Coast region lasting from the 17th century to the 1820s. S: exported gold and many slaves to the Dutch
independent kingdom in W. Africa along the Slave Coast w/ own political & aristocratic systems. Bronze casting was particularly developed. Slave trade was limited in Benin because of the ruler's choice; pepper, textiles, and ivory were traded instead of slaves for a long time. But European pressure eventually generated a slave trade in Benin. Had stronger ec base b/c slavery was never the main export
king of the Spanish Indies, although he still governed from Spain. He was known for going against the church and promoting science, trade, commerce, avoided fighting wars. He was in power from 1759 to 1788. died w no heir- last of Hapsburgs
any group of people who have been expelled from their homeland, usually involuntarily. EX:African slaves
grants of Native American workers awarded to Spanish in America. Encomendero could tax or work his natives. Often the labor was unfair or excessive w/ no protection/rights. S: basis for many coerced labor systems which spread through the Spanish Colonies in America.
facility near r an African port where slaves were kept till shipped. densely packed w/ terrible conditions, led to death of many potential slaves before they had even left Africa.
period of fighting that controlled parts of Africa from 1815 to roughly 1840, caused by the Zulu expansion into surrounding regions, and had a very high death toll. Many different states were attacked or otherwise affected, and even some European encampments were attacked. It was led by the Zulu ruler Shaka, who also made many reforms in the Zulu socio-political orginization.
leader of the Kongo, a central African kingdom, converted to Christianity by the Portugese, w/ major state support from Mvemba. The two kingdoms traded with each other and interacted equally, but when the Portuguese began to enslave the native people, Mvemba tried to limit interaction with Portugal and end slavery, but he was only partially succesful.
supreme religious & political leader of Asante Empire, part of the Akan people, used access to firearms to unify the Akan clans & promote the slave trade. S: centralized the Asante Empire, making it powerful enough to conquer the surrounding areas. It even caught the attention of the Dutch. The Asante used their firearms and the slave trade to remain the dominant state in their region until 1820.
A form of marriage in which a man has two or more wives S: became common in Africa, due to the surplus of women from slave trade
Royal African Company
A slaving company led by James, the Duke of York.
Significance- it was granted a monopoly over the English slave trade in 1660. Established trading posts on the W. African coast, and it was responsible for seizing any rival English ships that were transporting slaves.
Swazi and Lesotho
2 groups of ppl in S. Africa who survived conquest by the Zulu. The Swazi successfully adopted the Zulu system of political and military unification and organization in order to survive. The Lesotho resisted by integrating the Sotho and Nguni speakers, allowing them to put up a strong defense. The Lesotho continued to maintain a powerful kingdom, although they allowed more input from people and decreased the focus on the military.
Dutch people in SA who migrated to lands occupied by Bantu people. Many self governing states were created by the Boers. Moved N to escape govt.
S: This spread the population out. Also, the native people to the land were pushed out of their homes by these people and also dominated. This connects with apartheid during the 20th century.
1670s- Zulu power destroyed by Great Britain. During this, the common conflicts between the Africans and the Europeans in the largest colony of settlers on the continent started up. Conflicts such as: competitions between settlers and Africans over land, government authority and control, Europeans wanting to use Africans for labor, and the increasing influence of the Europeans in general.