Stock Market Crash of 1929 in USH
majority spending far above their means, no saving, Coolidge saying there was plenty of money. by July 1929, investors and businessmen realized their mistakes, October 24 and 29 29 million stocks changed hands. 30 billion dollars disappeared from market. whole country struck by poverty.
Tennessee Valley Authority in USH
1933, established in the TN valley to construct govt-owned dams and power plants. Also, inaugurate social and economic planning for the area, which was not successful because it was too simple.
Principle of Subsidiarity in USH
that those closest should help. abolished in US with FERA which had federal govt pay to help out. Should have lowered taxes instead. 1933
Dust Bowl in USH
summer of 1930. farmers did not follow conservation, drought caused topsoil to dry up and blow away. farmers caught in poverty, many forced to migrate.
Calvin Coolidge in USH
VP under Harding, reformed office after his death. Won 1924 elections.
Herbert Hoover in USH
Slogan "a chicken in every pot and two cars in every garage," won 1928 election, gave Republicans credit for prosperity.
Day of Infamy in USH
Dec. 7, 1941. Tokyo sent mssg to Kurusu to tell him to break off negotiations at 1 pm. US intercepted mssg. Marshall was "horseback riding," so he could not be reached. telegraph sent to Pearl Harbor, did not reach until after attack. private called alert when he saw plane on radar, no one believed him. 7:55 AM Japan bombed the harbor, battleships, boats, planes and people destroyed. Next day, Congress declared war on Japan. 3 days later, Germany and Italy declared war on US.
Battle of Guadalcanal in USH
1942, first US offensive after Midway. US took Guadalcanal, Japanese would attack at night. constant back-and-forth. Marines defended. US ship almost hit J ship going to attack G. Ships destroyed, US kept
Bataan Death March in USH
April 1942. Bataan fell to the Japanese, who had no provisions for prisoners in their war code, so they marched them to another part of the island. Conditions were so bad and so many men died that it was known as the Bataan Death March.
Operation Keelhaul in USH
O.K. was the secret clause at Yalta to force people to return to their homeland. Vlasov's army, Cosacks forced at gunpoint to return. 1945.
Moral climate in America in the 1920s
morality rejected. criminal gangs, murderers, alcohol worst evil, divorces doubled, PP, KKK
What kind of president Harding was. Scandals of his term
normalcy. did not belong, gave friends high positions. Teapot Dome Oil (gave power to Fall, who leased out oil), Ohio Gang (Daughtery protected illegals)
Four causes of the Depression
artificial inflation, black tuesday, reduction in spending, european policy
Why Roosevelt won in 1932
Hoover discredited as incompetent. Roosevelt charming,Garner and McAdoo realized that they would never win, so gave delegates to Roosevelt. beat smith for repub nomination, gave speech about ND on the spot. Spoke in favor of variety of programs so all voters would think that he was on their side. attacked hoover as having done/doing nothing.
Conflict between Roosevelt and the Supreme Court
1) gold issue, Roosevelt was sure that they would vote in his favor, if not had proclamations nullifying decision. 2) NIRA, invalidated. 3) invalidate AAA 4) Coal Act unconstitutional (set wages and prices) Roosevelt tried to change Court to have more people with less time. Congress said no.
3 reasons why Pearl Harbor was not a surprise (see lp essay)
1) US intercepted message from Japan and decoded it. 2) all of the aircraft carriers were moved, the first time that none were docked. 3) Marshall was conveniently "horseback riding" so that he would not notify Pearl Harbor and US could enter war sooner.
Describe Battle of Midway, why it was important, what the Japanese wanted to accomplish, consequences
J operative: draw out and destroy US Navy. Why crucial: turning point in war, from J dominance to US victory. What happened: Spruance took carriers toward Midway as Japan was getting ready to attack, Japan scout plane delayed. By the time scout discovered US, J already under attack. J shot down planes, changed plane bombs so that they could attack ships. Planes from Midway attack returned, J had to postpone carrier attackers. US air fleets found J carriers and bombed; all but 1 J plane was damaged/destroyed. Consequences: J realized they weren't invincible; turning point in war.
Summarize Normandy Invasion. Why it was timely
Decoy sent to Kent, attack at Normady (largest amphibian attack ever). US assigned 2 beaches, attacks went well but objectives not reached until end of June. Timely because production of V1 and V2 rockets were delayed until it was too late for Germany to win the war.
Describe Battle of Leyte Gulf. Why it was important
Japan took Philipines, MacArthur said he would return. Roosevelt sided with McA, fight from Leyte gulf north to Luzon. J planned "Sho One," distract McA with useless carriers to protect Leyte Gulf. US sunk two carriers, air-naval battle. J went down Suriago Strait, Kinkaid (US) was waiting, destroyed J. main J force could go back and destroy McA. Taffy III retreated from battle. Kurita retreated. Important because Philipines were cruicial to J for their natural resources
What the firebombing of Dresden was. Why Allies bombed Dresden, results and military goals acheived.
fire bombs dropped on Dresden hospital and city, creating massive firestorm that killed 100k+. Allies bombed to hamper German troops and aid Russian victory. War won, but Communists took over.
Essay: Effects of the New Deal on society. good and harmful actions, overall effects, long term benefits and drawbacks
restored confidence. Civilian Conservation Corps Reforestation Relief Act: men 18-25 who didn't have work could restore monuments for $30 a month. Abandoning the Gold Standard: made the value of money drop and prolonged the Depression. Federal Emergency Releif Act: ended subsidiarity, gave money for destitiute. Agricultural Adjustment Act: helped farmers by paying them to not grow crops so that prices would rise. hurt more, because crops were wasted when people were hungry, bigger farms outdid smaller, and sharecroppers lost out. Tennessee Valley Authority: build dams and power plants to help social reconstruction. did not work. Gold Repeal Joint Resolution: required that all debts be paid in currency rather than hard money. so debtors got less money back. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation: govt guaruntees of deposits under 5k. good, made it less likely that people would lose money when banks failed. National Industrial Recovery Act tried to set wages, prices, employment for major business. failed because many businessess would not subscribe. ND did not end the depression. Social Security encouraged spending rather than saving, Labor unions drove up inflation by demanding higher wages, all problems given to govt.
Essay: Why the US used the atomic bomb, which cities were bombed, short and long term effects in Japan and America, why it was immoral.
Japan would only surrender if safety for their emperor was guaranteed, US offered only unconditional surrender. Dropped first bomb on Hiroshima, J would not surrender, 2nd bomb on Nagasaki. J surrendered, safety of emperor guaranteed. Defense: end war sooner, prevent invasion, win war. War would have ended in January on same terms without bombs and Leyte Gulf. Dropped to punish Japan. ST effects: 200K Japanese killed, same terms accepted.
Essay: mistakes and agreements made at Yalta, long lasting results.
Russia part of UN. in return, SU controlled Manchurian RR, port Darien, naval bases, islans, 3 votes in UN. Romania fell to comms, non-Comm influence extinguished in Europe before voting. all of E. Europe comm, freedom, dignity,& Christianity gone.