Philosophy Test 2

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Thales

c. 585 B.C.E. Considered to be the first philosopher because he introduced a different mode of thinking that relied on reason and observation of nature. Argued that the primary substance of the universe was water.

Anaximenes

c. sixth century B.C.E. Held the belief that air is the one substance out of which the entire universe is formed

Heraclitus

c. 540-c. 480 B.C.E. The most influential of pre-Socratic philosophers; maintained al things were in a constant state of flux and that the governing principle of the universe is what he called logos

Democritus

c. mid-fifth century B.C.E. Advanced the doctrine of atomism, maintaining that all matter is composed of indivisible atoms in motion.

Anaxagoras

500-428 B.C.E. Maintained that the entire universe is composed of matter in motion, governed by the principle of mind (nous)

Pythagoras

c. 570-c. 497 B.C.E. Heavily influenced Plato; maintained that the human soul was immortal and transmigrated after death. He also developed several influential math theories.

Parmenides

510-450 B.C.E. An accomplished mathematician and influential pre-Socratic thinker who posited a necessary, static, unchanging unity running throughout all of what is in flux. Reality must necessarily be eternal and unchanging: Therefore, the changing world of our experience must be in some sense illusory

Anaximander

546 B.C. He held that the earth was freely suspended in space. He suggested that all living creatures arose from water, and that men had evolved from fish. He argued that there was a single primal substance and a natural law which exerts itself in the world, maintaining a balance between different elements. He also made the first map for the explorer-merchants of Miletus.

Sophists

Among the opponents of Socrates were the Sophists, educators who believed that "truth" was relative (that is dependent on the context) and "knowledge" merely a matter of opinion. They valued the art of persuasion more than they valued the art of getting at the truth, since they believed there was no concrete truth.

Socratic Method

Seeking clarity and truth through penetrating questioning and astute analysis. The Socratic Method uses questions and analysis to draw people into an exchange of ideas regarding a central concept, in an attempt to get at the essential nature of the concept. Sometimes coaxing, occasionally sarcastic, and frequently combative, the Socratic Method as practiced by Socrates sought to strip away pretensions, inconsistencies, and false ideas to get at a universal truth.

Psyche

the true self or soul p. 55

Arête

virtue and excellence

Episteme

knowledge

Sophia

wisdom

Eudaemonia

happiness which is achieved through a life of enlightened thinking and virtuous action

martyr

someone who dies for a cause, Socrates was a ________ to enlightened thinking and virtuous living by refusing to compromise these values that defined his life.

Socrates's notion of the good life

a good and honorable life entailed making full use of all of one's gifts: intellectually, creatively, courageously.

Deductive Reasoning

Starting with an axiom (general rule) that is self-evident, then proceeding step by logical step to a conclusion that is far from self-evident.

Inductive Reasoning

a generalization based on observed instances, or the making of such generalizations, in the usual working method of scientists

Galileo

Under threat of death from the Catholic Inquisition, recanted his belief that Earth orbits around the sun and then spent twenty years under house arrest, supposedly doing penance for his "blasphemous" beliefs.

Socrates

He died willingly for the moral principles and values on which his life was constructed. There were numerous ways he could have avoided death, but all of them would have meant betraying his principles and violating his character in some significant way.

How did Socrates think of the soul? In other words, did Socrates believe the soul existed and if so, what did he believe it was like? (from reading)

p. 55 According to Socrates the soul is "immortal and imperishable, and after death should continue to exist in another world." Every soul seeks happiness, Socrates believes, and there is a clearly defined path to achieving happiness, though many don't choose to take it. The only people who are truly happy are those who are virtuous and wise, who live reflective, "examined" lives and strive to behave rightly and justly in every area of their lives. Socrates believed that your soul is the source of your deepest and highest aspirations, the unique life force that shapes and defines itself through choices made on a daily basis. It is your core identity, your unique spirit that makes you distinctively you. Socrates believed that the soul needed to be cared for through careful examination of the self.

how did Socrates think of the soul? The 4 main ideas I am looking for:

1. the soul is immortal
2. each person has one unique soul that continues to exist in another world after death
3. the soul seeks happiness
4. the soul must be cared for through reflective and careful examination of the self

What were Socrates' major contributions to philosophy?

-He brought philosophy into the marketplace, or agora. In other words, he brought philosophy to the common man.
-He created a conceptual framework and method of inquiry for Western consciousness and culture.

What were Socrates' major contributions to philosophy? (answer worded differently)

1) He brought philosophy to the average man. 2) He created a foundation for the study of philosophy and 3) He developed a mode of philosophical investigation for Western thought and society.

What are Socrates's core teachings? P. 55-57 (from a homework assignment)

1. the unexamined life is not worth living
2. The truth lies within each of us.
3. We should strive for excellence in all areas of life.
4. No one knowingly does evil.
5. It is better to suffer wickedness than to commit it.
6. The soul is immortal.

What are the strengths and weaknesses of the Socratic method as a means of persuading others? (based on your own experience writing a Socratic Dialogue)

+less preachy than a lecture
+person takes greater ownership of ideas synthesized through dialogue
-it is difficult to lead someone to an idea by way of questions
-the person being questioned may not respond as you would think he or she would

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