ch 6-skeletal system

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Which of following is a function of the skeletal system?
protection of internal organs
blood cell production
calcium homeostasis
body support
All of the answers are correct.

all

small and flat bones that develop inside tendons near joints of knees, hands, feet

sesamoid

Cells that secrete the organic components of the bone matrix are called
osteoblasts.
osteoprogenitor cells.
osteocytes.
chondrocytes.
osteoclasts

osteoblasts

Bone is composed of ________ percent cells

2

Through the action of osteoclasts,
fractured bones regenerate.
new bone is formed.
an organic framework is formed.
bony matrix is dissolved.
osteoid is calcified

bony matrix is dissolved

The space occupied by an osteocyte is called a
lacuna.
trabecula.
Volkmann's canal.
Venetian canal.
Haversian cana

lacuna

________ cells are located in the inner cellular layer of the periosteum.
Osteoclast
Osteoprogenitor
Chondroblast
Osteoid
Osteocyte

osteoprogenitor

In bone, the calcium phosphate forms crystals of ________

hydroxyapatite

Cells that free calcium from bone to maintain blood calcium levels are called

osteoclasts

The trabeculae of spongy bone
are organized along stress lines.
will collapse under stress.
are concentrated in the cortex of the diaphysis.
are organized parallel to the long axis of the bone.
are composed mostly of cartilage.

are organized along stress lines

Blood is distributed from the surface of a bone to deeper central canals through channels known as ________.

perforating canals

Endochondral ossification begins with the formation of a(n)
osteoblasts model.
fibrous connective-tissue model.
cartilage model.
calcified model.
membranous model.

cartilage model

Secondary ossification centers occur
in the epiphyses.
in dermal bones.
at the periosteum.
in the diaphysis.
in the metaphyses

epiphyses

Intramembranous ossification begins with differentiation of ________ cells.
osteocyte
osteoprogenitor
osteoblast
osteoclast
mesenchymal

mesenchymal

Intramembranous ossification
occurs in all bones before birth.
occurs inside a bag of cartilage.
produces flat bones as in the bones of the roof of the skull.
explains how a juvenile's bone can grow in length.
occurs in the diaphysis of a long bone.

produces flat bones

Bone tissue formation begins when osteoblasts secrete
collagen fibers.
calcium.
silica.
hydroxyapatite.
mesenchyme

collagen

When the epiphyseal plate is replaced by bone,
puberty begins.
the bone becomes more brittle.
long bones have reached their adult length.
interstitial bone growth begins.
appositional bone growth begins.

long bones have reached their adult length.

Accelerated closure of the epiphyseal plates could be caused by
elevated levels of estrogen.
too little thyroxine.
too much calcium in the diet.
high levels of vitamin D.
an excess of growth hormon

elevated levels of estrogen.

During the process of ________, an existing tissue is replaced by bone.

ossification

The process of depositing calcium into a tissue is called ________.

calcification

what hormone helps absorb calcium and phosphorus from digestive tract

calicitrol

what hormones stimulate bone growth

growth homrone and thyroxine

what stimulates osteoblasts

estrogens and androgens

what is the most abundant mineral in the body

calcium

Excessive growth hormone prior to puberty could result in
dwarfism.
osteoporosis.
osteopenia.
giantism.
ricket

giantism

Factors that are necessary for proper bone formation include all of the following, except
vitamin A.
the hormone thyroxine.
vitamin D.
vitamin C.
vitamin E.

e

Bone plays a central role in the regulation of blood levels of
iron.
sulfate.
sodium.
potassium.
calcium

calcium

The condition known as osteopenia
is caused by too much vitamin D in the diet.
affects mostly women.
only affects the femur.
causes a gradual reduction in bone mass.
is rarely seen as people age.

causes a gradual reduction in bone mass

Mary is 50 years old and has entered menopause. During a checkup, a bone scan reveals the beginnings of osteoporosis. Her physician suggests hormone therapy. What hormone might she prescribe for her patient?
thyroid hormone
growth hormone
parathyroid hormone
calcitonin
estrogen

estrogen

osteogenesis

bone formation

what bone cell does this:
To maintain protein and mineral content of matrix
To help repair damaged bone
DO NOT DIVIDE

osteocyte

Immature bone cells that secrete matrix compounds

osteoblasts

mesenchymal stem cells that divide to produce osteoblasts
located in endosteum
assist in fracture repair

osteoprogenitor

secrete acids and protein digesting enzymes
giant multinucleated cells
dissolve bone matrix and release stored minerals

osteoclasts

form pathways for blood vessels
exchange nutrients and wastes.

located in the osteocytes

canaliculi

what minerals are bone matrix composed of and what do the two combine to form?

calcium phosphate
calcium hydroxide
forms hydroxyapatite

what is the matrix composed of

minerals
proteins

what proteins make up matrix

collagen

mature bone cells that maintain bone matrix

osteocytes

cell that rebuilds bone

osteoblasts

creates osteoblasts

osteoprogenitor

tears down bone

osteoclasts

A central canal and the concentric osseous lamellae encircling it, occurring in compact bone.

osteons

what is the space between the trabaculae filled with?

red and yellow bone marrow

functions of red bone marrow

forms red blood cells
supplies nutrients to osteocytes

compact bone thickens and strengthens long bone with layers of circumferential lamellae

appositional growth

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