Piaget's second stage, lasting from about 2 to 7 years of age, during which children begin to represent the world with words, images, and drawings, and symbolic thought goes beyond simple connections of sensory information and physical action; stable concepts are formed, mental reasoning emerges, egocentrism is present, and magical beliefs are constructed.
In Piaget's theory, internalized reversible sets of actions that allow children to do mentally what they formally did physically.
symbolic function substage
Piaget's first substage of preoperational thought, in which teh child gains the ability to mentally represent an object that is not present (between about 2 and 4 years of age)
intuitive thought substage
Piaget's second substage of preoperational thought, in which children begin to use primitive reasoning and ant to know the answers to all sorts of questions (between about 4 and 7 years of age).
The focusing of attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others.
In Piaget's theory, awareness that altering an object's or a substance's appearance does not change its basic properties.
social constuctivist approach
An approach that emphasizes the social contexts of learning and that knowledge is mutually built and constructed. Vygotsky's theory reflects this approach
zone of proximal development
Vygotsky's term for tasks too difficult for children to master alone but that can be mastered with assistance.
Involves action planning, allocating attention to goals, error detection and compensation, monitoring progress on tasks, and dealing with novel or difficult circumstances.
focused and extended engagement with an object, task, event, or other aspect of the environment.
The memory component in which individual's retain information for up to 30 second, assuming there is no rehersal of the information
theory of mind
refers to the awareness of one's own mental processes and the mental processes of others.
the sound system of a language, including the sounds used and how they may be combined
units of meaning involved in word formation.
The ways words are combined to form acceptable phrases and sentences
the meaning of words and sentences
the appropriate use of language in different contexts
education that involves the whole child by consisdering both the child's physical, cognitive and socioemotional development and the child's needs, interests, and learning styles.
an educational philosophy in which children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities and are allowed to move rom one activity to another as they desire.
developmentally appropriate practice
Education that focuses on the typical developmental patterns of children (age appropriate-ness) and the uniqueness of each child (individual appropriateness.)
project head start
A government-funded program that is designed to provide children from low-income families the opportunity to acquire the skills and experiences important for school success.
Diana Baumrind's Research on _____ ______. (Accepting vs. unaccepting/demanding vs. undepanding- and their combinations.) Becomes authoritative, authoritarian, neglectful, indulgent.