Soc 1

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Sociology

The scientific study of human social life groups and societies. An academic discipline that seeks to study systematically human social life, groups and societies.

Sociological imagination

Application of imaginative thought to answering or asking sociological questions.

Troubles versus issues (Mills)

Troubles are personal problems that are privately resolved. Issues are a problem that affect society.

Macro, meso, and micro sociology

Macro is large scale social systems like the economy or political system. Meso institutions that mediate between the micro and macro. Micro everyday behavior and face to face interaction.

Social structure

Refers to the organized patterns on social relationships and social institutions that constitutes society.

Structuration

Refers to the construction and reconstruction of social structures. There are not fixed social structures evolve.

Public sociology

Relevant to public debates and policy making

August Comte

A French philosopher who invented the word sociology. Originally used the term social physics. He believe that sociology could produce a better society by producing scientific evidence that could predict and control human behavior. Originally pioneered functionalism.

Karl Marx

Emphasize the economic process on the influence of social change. Conflict theory and class difference. Capitalism will fall apart and will lead to socialism and then eventually to communism. Materialist conception of history: materials or economic factors have a prime whole in determining historical change.

Max Weber

Values and ideas such as religion and science shape society. Sociologist needs to be able to see the world form the perspective of the people being studied. Beuacracy strangle the human imagination. Bertehen: understanding. Rationalization: process where superstition is replaced by rational ideas. , Iron cage of bureaucracy: government strangles human creativity. Protestant ethic: the fact that the industrial revolution happened in Europe because of the protestant ethic instead of china.

Emile Durkheim

Study social facts as things. Key concepts are mechanical and organic solidary. Is best known for functionalism and provided the basis for modern functionalism. Social structures inform and constrain human interaction. Anomie: feeling of aimlessness or despaired provoked by modern social life being one of these influences like suicide.

Harriet Martineau

Founded "positive philosophy" wrote about the US politics and culture. She was a supporter of abolition. When one studies a society one must study all aspects including social religious and political institutions. And must include the lives and roles of women. First to turn a sociological eye on previously ignored issues such as marriage, children, domestic and religious life and race relations. Sociologist should do more than just observe they should act in ways to benefit society.

W.E.B. Du Bois

First African American to earn a doctorate degree from havard. Double consciousness a way of talking about identity from the lenses or particular experiences of African Americans. African americans can only see themselves through the eyes of others. Ones sense and ones identity are greatly influences by historical experiences and social circumstances. Example African americans and the effect of slavery.

Jane Adams

Became known for connecting social analysis to social reform. Was a woman from Chicago who wrote about the plight of indignant people and minorities and the how local communities can assist them. Also known for studying poor women and imigrants. She lived in the ghetto.

Functionalism

A theoretical perspective based on the notion that social events can best be explained by the functions they perform. That is the contribution they make to the continuity of a society. Emphasizes the importance of moral consensus in maintaining order and stability in society. Manifest and latent functions. Manifest: intended function. Latent: unintended function

Rational choice theory

A group of theory's that focus on the micro level and how people make decisions. And how people engage in a process of rationalization in order to reach a decision.

Symbolic interactionism

How people trade symbols. A theoretical approach in sociology invented by George Herbert mead which emphasis the role of symbols and languages as core elements of all human interaction.

Conflict theory (aka Marxist theory)

Perspectives in social science that emphasize the social political or material inequality in a social group. Marxist lay more emphasis on conflict, cost division, power and ideology than many non marx sociologist. Especailly most of those influenced by functionalism. Capitalism causes tension between different social classes as injustice and poverty will cause the working class to revolt against the upper class. Marxist focus on power and ideology. And ideology is shared ideas and believes that serves to justify the interest of dominant groups. Power is the ability of individuals of a group to achieve aims or further the interest they hold.

Feminism

a sociological perspective that emphasizes the centrality of gender in analyzing the social world in particularly the experiences of women. Advocacy of the rights of women to be equal with men in all spheres of life.

Postmodernism

The belief that there is no solid fixed truth about a society it revises or challenges original older theories. The people involved marx who influences jean baudrillard who believes that electronic media has destroyed or relationship to our past and have placed us in a chaotic and empty world.

Informed consent

Written or oral inform of the risk of participating in certain projects. A safeguard to informed consent is a debriefing after the research study.

Operationalizing a concept

The process of finding ways to measure concepts and behavior.

Comparative methods

Compare multiple cases particularly at the meso and macro level to identify possible reason for differences. Helps to identify causal methods.

Content analysis

Systematic analysis of the content rather than the structure, and communication such as written work speech and film.

Ethnography

Participant or non participant observation and or interviewing. The researcher embeds himself in the research setting.

Experimental methods

To test hypothesis under conditions that the researcher controls.

Historical methods

Utilizes archival data sources.

Interviewing

Involves speaking with people directly about experiences. Structured or semi or unstructured interviews as well as life history methods.

Sampling/random sampling

Sampling method in which a sample is chosen so that every member of chosen population has the same probability of being included

Response rate

Percentage of people who respond to the surveys.

Reflexivity

Involves analyzing and critically considering our own roles in the research space.

Independent

Independent variable produces and effect on another variable it is a cause.

Dependent

A variable effected by independent variable it is an outcome.

Control

A variable researcher hold constant to look at the effect of other variables

Correlation

Means there is a relationship between two variables

Causation

Means that one variable causes another

Spuriousness

When it looks like one thing causes another but a key independent variable is missing

Culture

Passed on from on generation from the next. A tool kit that members of a society have at their disposal to understand and participate in there society. Can change. The values norms and material good that is characteristic of a given group.

Counterculture

Groups that largely reject the prevailing values and norms of society.

Subculture

Smaller segments of society distinguished by unique patters of behavior.

Material v. non-material culture

The physical objects that individuals in a society create. Non material is the beliefs or conceptions that people accept as true the values and ideas that people believe is good right and appropriate and social norms for principles and rules that people are expect to observe, ie language and symbols.

Gender socialization

Process in which members of society learn the appropaite norms and behaviors associated with there gender category.

Heteronormativity

Part of gender socialization it involves treating heterosexuality as the norm assuming everyone is heterosexual

Social control

methods used to teach persuade or force members and sometimes non members in a group or society to apply with a societies expectations people are penalized for noncomformity.

Folkways

Principles or rules that people re expected to observe.

Society

A system of interrelationships that connect individuals made up of individuals that live together in a specific geographic area and work together to attain common goals.

Values

Abstract ideals of what is good right and appropriate.

Conformity

Comprises the behaviors and appearances that follow and maintain the norms and expectations of a group.

Crime

Is a response to inequalities to the capitalist system. Book def. any action that contradicts the laws established by a political authority.

Deviance

Modes of action that do not conform to the norms or values held by most members of a group or society

Formal

conducted by government and social organizations using law enforcement mechanisms and other formal sanctions such as fines and imprisonment. To ensure that a particular set of norms is followed. (Disneyland)

Informal

Reactions of individuals in groups that bring about conformity to norms and laws, includes peer and community pressure bystander intervention in crime and collective responses such as citizen control groups.

Censorship

the suppression of speech or other public communication which may be considered objectionable harmful or sensitive to the general body of people as determined by a government or other controlling body.

Sanction

Any reaction from others to the behavior of an individual or group to ensure that the person or group complies with the given norm. Sanctions may be positive the offering of rewards for conforming to society or negative punishment for behavior that does not conform. A mode of reward or punishment that reinforces socially expected forms of behavior

Socialization

The process in which individuals become skilled in the practices of a culture. It is keen to social reproduction or to the ability of a society to retain continuity over time.

Surveillance

Making people believe that it is harder to commit crimes because they are being watched.

Conflict

Told a lie, stolen, cheating....

Broken Windows Theory

When you see a community with a broken window the place will get worse because no one cares about it. Communities with broken windows make it seem like serious crimes are acceptable in that community.

Target hardening

Making the crimes difficult to commit by adding more surveillance.

Anomie

Exist when there is no clear standards or guide to social life. Modern societies are inherently anomic.

Strain theory

Robert k merton defined the concept of anomie to refer to when accept norms conflict with social reality

Subcultural

deviant subcultures are a collective response to anomie and strain. Lack of opportunity for success is a major difference for those who commit crimes and those who don't.

Differential association

And interpretation of the development of criminal behavior proposed by Edwin h southernland according to whom criminal behavior is learned through association with others who regularly engage in crime. people learn defiant behavior from others and there social milliuex such as peer groups criminal activities are learned just like law abiding behavior is learned from socialization.

Labeling

People learn to be deviant when others label them as deviant thereby closing off social opportunities.

Audience segregation

When individuals show a different face to different people.

Impression management

Striking a pose. Preparing for the presentation for one's social role.

Saving face

To keep your reputation intact.

Unfocused Interaction

An interaction occurring among people present in a particular setting but not in direct face to face interaction

Focused Interaction

the interaction between individuals engaged in a common activity or in a direct conversation with one another

Interational vandalism

The deliberate subversion of tacit rules of conversation. Not what you say but how you say it.
(hey)

Role conflict

Develops when an individual holds 2 or more roles that conflict with one another

Role strain

Develops when a single role is associated with contradictory or conflicting expectations

Social interaction

A situation in which at least 2 people communicate or respond to language and or gestures to effect on another's behavior or thinking.

Symbolic interactionism

Human interaction is mediated and informed by the use of symbols and signification and by interpretation

Social role

Socially defined expectations that a person in a particular social position follows

Achieved status

A status you earn thru your own efforts chose and abilities

Ascribed status

A status others assign to you based on socially meaningful characteristic like race or gender.

Masters status

A status that has the greatest impact on how you are perceived by others.

Formal organizations

One of the two institutional organizations

Informal organizations

One of the two institutional organizations

negative sanction

When a professor is delivering a lecture and people are whispering at the back of the room, the professor might stop speaking and wait until the whisperers stop whispering. This would be an example of:

review of existing evidence

Once a researcher has identified a research problem, she then prepares a(n):

structuration

People who are shaped by the social structure are constantly reconstructing those same social structures. What word refers to this process?

civil inattention

Two people walking on a city sidewalk quickly glance at each other then look away as they pass. Erving Goffman called this type of interaction

issues

In "The Sociological Imagination," C. Wright Mills distinguishes between troubles, or individual problems, and _________, or a matter than can only be explained by factors outside of an individual's control

A student shouts out in class, "Hey teach! Lookin' good today!"

Which of the following is an example of interactional vandalism?

control theory

You do not text while driving because you are afraid of getting a costly ticket if you are caught by the police. The criminology theory or concept that would best explain this situation is:

Values, behavioral guidelines, folkways and norms

Socialization provides an individual with

the implications of industrialization

As discussed in lecture, a central point of interest for all of the classical sociological theorists was:

Vegans, motorcycle collectors, computer geeks who create viruses

Which of the following groups characterize a subculture?

organic solidarity

In order for a complex society to function properly, according to Émile Durkheim, all its parts must work together as an integrated whole. He referred to this social cohesion as

Karl Marx

Which early theorist saw class conflict as the main source of social change?

social control

Clifford Shearing and Phillip Stenning discuss the experience of visiting Disney World in "From the Panopticon to Disney World." Their descriptions of surveillance, mandatory line formation, and the disciplining of visitors are examples of:

spurious

Your father determines that you are tired all the time because you don't eat your vegetables with dinner. He starts keeping a chart of how many vegetables you eat and how tired you look, and soon is able to demonstrate that on the days after you don't eat any vegetables, you look the most tired. If your father knew you were regularly sneaking out at night, he would be less likely to make the ________ argument that not eating vegetables makes you look tired.

racism and racial inequality

In his analysis of the Tuskegee syphilis study, Allan M. Brandt argues that how the study was conducted can only be understood by taking into account:

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