Central nervous system
the portion of the vertebrate nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Peripheral nervous system
the sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body.
Somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles.
Autonomic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs.
Sympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
Parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy.
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons.
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
largest part of a typical neuron; contains the nucleus and much of the cytoplasm.
long fiber that carries impulses away from the cell body of a neuron.
bulb like structures at end of axon contain neurotransmitters that carry neuron messages into synapse. When the neuron is triggered, releases chemicals into the space between neurons
a fatty covering around the axon of some neurons that speed neural impulses.
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron.
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. The action potential is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane.
chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse.
a neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contraction.
a neurotransmitter that influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion. Lack of is related to Parkinson's.
neurotransmitter that affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal.
the chief inhibitory neurotransmitter, it regulates neuronal excitability and regulates muscle tone.
a major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory and metabolism.
natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure.
chemical messengers, mostly those manufactured by the endocrine glands, that are produced in one tissue and affect another.
pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys, secretes the hormones epinepherine (adrenaline) and norepinepherine (nonadrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress.
endocrine gland found in the neck that plays an important role in metabolism, growth, and produces thyroid hormone.
four small glands embedded on the posterior surface of the thyroid gland. The parathyroid glands produce a hormone that regulates the level of calcium in the bloodstream.
the endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
an amplified recording of the waves of electrical activity that sweep across the brain's surface. These waves are measured by electrodes placed on the scalp.
PET (positron-emission tomography)
a visual display of brain activity that detects where a radioactive form of glucose goes while the brain performs a given task.
MRI (magnetic resonance imaging)
a technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images that distinguish among different types of soft tissue; allows us to see structures within the brain.
the base of the brainstem, controls the heartbeat, breathing, circulation, and the reflex actions (swallowing, coughing, vomiting, and sneezing)
relays information to higher brain; coordinates left/right side body movement; also connects medulla to cerebellum
a doughnut-shaped system of neural structures at the border of the brainstem and cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions such as fear and aggression and drives such as those for food and sex. Includes the hippocampus, amygdala, and hypothalamus.
located on top of the brainstem; acts as a relay station ; regulates motivation, attention ; connects emotion to sensation
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; regulates appetite, sex drive, attention, and aggression; regulates automatic functions (heart rate, breathing..etc)
two lima bean-sized neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to fear, rage, and disgust.
a neural center located in the limbic system that helps initially store memories
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the back of the head; includes the visual areas, which receive visual information from the opposite visual field.
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position.
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears; includes the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear.
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying just behind the forehead; involved in speaking and muscle movements and in making plans and judgments.
area of the brain that processes incoming signals from the skin, muscles, and bones.
an area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements.
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
the brain's capacity for modification, as evident in brain reorganization following damage (especially in children) and in experiments on the effects of experience on brain development.
a progressive and irreversible brain disorder characterized by gradual deterioration of memory, reasoning, language, and physical formation.
a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that often impairs the motor skills, speech, and other functions.
Autonomic Nervous System
The part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs (such as the heart) its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms
Areas of the cerebral cortex that are not involved in primary motor or sensory functions; rather, they are involved in higher mental functions such as learning, remembering, thinking, and speaking.
The oldest part and central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull. Responsible for automatic survival functions.
rear of the brainstem; functions include processing sensory input and coordinating movement output and balance.
The body's "slow" chemical communication system; a set of gland that secrete hormones into the bloodstream.
Tissue destruction. A brain lesion is an experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue.
Bundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands and sense organs.
The body's speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems.
The formation of new neurons.
A nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.
Helps control alertness and arousal. Lack of=Depressive mood.
A simple, automatic response to a sensory stimulus, such as the knee-jerk response.
A neurotransmitter's reabsorption by the sending neuron
A nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal.
A condition resulting from surgery that isolates the brain's two hemispheres by cutting the fibers (mainly the corpus callosum) between them.
The level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse.
A small part of the brain above the pons that integrates sensory information and relays it upward
located one on each side of the uterus in the female pelvis, functioning to secrete estrogen and progesterone
located partially behind the stomach in the abdomen, and it functions as both an endocrine and exocrine gland. It produces digestive enzymes as well as insulin and glucagon
a cellular structure that is postulated to exist in order to mediate between a chemical agent that acts on nervous tissue and the physiological response
The male gonads, which produce sperm and secrete male sex hormones (testosterone)
railroad worker who survived a severe brain injury, to his frontal lobe, that dramatically changed his personality and behavior; case played a role in the development of the understanding of the localization of brain function
metaphor/symbolic thinking, emotion control, hypothetical thinking
deals with: appetite, sex drive, emotions (particularly negative), and some vision processes
regulates breathing, heart rate, sleeping/waking, survival mechanisms. maintains homeostasis
studied split brain patients; showed that left/right hemispheres have different functions
phantom limb phenomenon
a rat that has an implanted electrode in its head and someone can control the rat by simulating the reward center in its brain
regulates the beginning of movement, eye movement, rhythm, some emotional responses, and addictive behaviors