med. terms 2

Created by Dawns 

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coagulation time

venous blood is clotted in a test tube

hematocrit

sample of blood is spun in a test tube so that red cells fall to the bottom and percentage of RBCs is taken

red blood cell morphology

blood smear is examined to determine the shape or form of cells

white blood cell differential

leukocytes are stained and counted under a microscope to see numbers of mature and immature forms

erythrocyte sedimentation rate

venous blood is collected ; anti-coagulant added and the distance cells fall in a period of time is determined

erythrocyte

red blood cell

monocyte

white blood cell; phagocyte and precursor of a macrophage

platelet

thrombocyte

hematopoietic stem cell

bone marrow cell; gives rise to many types of cells

lymphocyte

leukocyte formed in lymph tissue; produces antibodies

eosinophil

leukocyte with dense, reddish granules; associated with allergic reaction

neutrophil

leukocyte (poly) formed in bone marrow and having neurtal-staining granules

basophil

leukocyte whose granules have and affinity for basic stain; releases histamine and heparin

poikilocytosis

irregularity is shape; abnormality in red blood cells

erythrocytopenia

defiency in numbers

hypochromic

reduction in hemoglobin (color)or reduction in red cells due to excessive cell destrution

microcytosis

increase in numbers of small cells

polycythemia vera

erythemia

macrocytosis

increase in number of large cells

erythropoiesis

formation of red cells

hemolysis

destruction of red cells

palliative

relieving, but not curing

pancytopenia

deficiency of all blood cells

eosinophilia

increase in numbers of granulocytes; seen in allergic conditions

relapse

symtoms of disease return

purpura

multiple pinpoint hemmorages; blood accumulates under the skin

apheresis

separation of blood into its components

remission

symtoms of disease disappear

red blood cell morphology

a stained blood smear is examined to determine the shape of individual red blood cells

hematocrit

measures the percentage of red blood cells in a volume of blood

platelet count

determines the number of clotting cells per cubic millimeter

coagulation time

ability of venous blood to clot in a test tube

erythrocyte sedimentation rate

measures the speed at which erythrocytes settle out of plasma

WBC differential

determines the number of different types of WBCs

coombs test

determines the presence of antibodies in infants of Rh-negative women or patients with autoimmune hemolytic anemia

hematopoietic stem cell transplant

undifferentiated blood cells from a donor are infused into a patient being treated for leukemia or aplastic anemia

bleeding time

time it takes for a small puncture wound to stop bleeding

bone marrow biopsy

needle is introduced into the bone marrow cavity, and a small amount of marrow is aspirated and then examined under the microscope

autologous transfusion

blood is collected from and later reinfused into the same patient

plasma

liquid portion of blood

erythropoietin

hormone secreted by the kidney to stimulate erythrocyte production of bone marrow

globulin

proteins in plasma; can be separated into alpha, beta, and gamma types

albumin

plasma protein that maintains the proper amount of water in blood

antibodies

proteins made by lymphocytes in response to antigens in the blood

leukocytopenia/leukopenia

deficiency of white blood cells

myelopoiesis

formation of bone marrow

anticoagulant

a substance that stops clotting

thrombolytic

pertaining to destruction of clots

sickle cell anemia

abnormally shaped red blood cells

aplastic anemia

all blood cells are not produced in the bone marrow

thalassemia

an inherited defect, inability to produce hemoglobin

CLL

chronic lymphocytic leukemia

AML

acute myelogenous leukemia

autoimmune thrombocytopenic purpura

deficiency of platelets with hemorages into the skin

hemophilia

excessive bleeding caused by a hereditary lackof the clotting factor VIII

electrophoresis

separating out plasma protein by electrical charge

antigens

substance (usually forein) that stimulates the production of an antibody

bilirubin

orange-yellow pignent in bile, formed by breakdown of hemoglobin when red blood cells die

heparin

anticoagulant found in blood and tissue cells

erythroblast

immature red blood cell

hemolysis

breakdown of red blood cells when someone is given incompatible (wrong) blood type

iron deficiency enemia

most common of anemias; cause by lack of iron (which is required for hemoglobin production). Many erythrocytes are small(microcytic) and have increase central pollar(hypochromic), variations in size(anisocytosis)and shape(poikilocytosis)

hemochromatosis

excessive deposits of iron throughout the body

signs of AML

affects primarily adults;platelets and erythrocytes are diminished because of infiltration and replacement of the bone marrow by large numbers of myeloblasts

signs of CLL

most common form of leukemia usually occursin the elderly and follows a slow progressive course

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