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James Madison

Strict constructionist, 4th president, father of the Constitution, leads nation through War of 1812

events during his time: Macon's Bill No. 2, war hawks, Tecumseh, the Prophet, Battle of Tippecanoe, nationalism

Macon's Bill No. 2

opened trade with britain and france, said if either nation repealed its restrictions on neutral shipping the US would halt trade with the other, didn't work (Napoleon tricked us)

war hawks

Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to takeover British land in North America/expand (Canada), and destroy Native American resistance on frontier
ex: Henry Clay, John C. Calhoun


A famous chief of the Shawnee who tried to unite Indian tribes (Indian confederacy) against the increasing white settlement (1768-1813); died in Battle of Thames

The Prophet

Tecumseh's brother, led attack on Harrison's army in Battle of Tippecanoe

Battle of Tippecanoe

1811 @ Ohio River Valley-Tecumseh and the Prophet attack, but General Harrison crushes them in this battle ends Tecumseh's attempt to unite all tribes in Mississippi.


strong sense of ______ grew in America after defeating the British and earning some respect; contributed to the composition of the Star Spangled Banner

War of 1812

Causes: land, impressment, neutral trade
Effects: weakened native population, growth of American industry, nationalism, respect from other countries
ended in stalemate-all land ended up going back where it came from

Oliver Hazard Perry

United States commodore who led the fleet that defeated the British on Lake Erie in 1813 (the most important naval battle, b/c it showed the strength of the US navy) during the War of 1812

Thomas Macdonough

US naval officer who forced the invading British navy on Lake Champlain to retreat in 1814; He saved the upper New York from conquest.

Francis Scott Key

a lawyer seeking release of a US hostage, who was held overnight on a British ship in Baltimore Harbor, where he watched the attack on Fort McHenry-thus, he wrote the Star Spangled Banner

Burning of Washington

(part of Britain's "3-part invasion") the british army marched through the nation's capital Washington, DC, and set fire to the White House, Capitol, and other government buildings; also attempted to take Baltimore, but Fort McHenry held out and stopped them

Battle of New Orleans

1815- Andrew Jackson, outnumbered 2-1, became a hero by defeating British; was fought 2 weeks after the peace treaty (unknowingly)
effect: national pride soared

Treaty of Ghent

signed in 1814, ratified in 1815; ended War of 1812 with cease-fire, restored pre-war territorial claims, certain issues given commissions to settle later

Hartford Convention

held in 1814 by Federalist New Englanders, to urge amendment of Constitution, and if necessary, vote on secession from Union; in response to the War of 1812
Battle of New Orleans and Treaty of Ghent ended criticism of war and further weakened Federalists by stamping them as unpatriotic

American System

economic plan proposed by Henry Clay, consisting of 3 parts: (1) protective tariffs-promote American manufacturing and raise revenue to help build transportation systems, (2) a national bank-keep the system running smoothly by providing a national currency, and (3) internal improvements-would promote growth in West and South
Madison and Monroe opposed the idea, saying constitution did not give federal government the power to fund internal improvements in the states

First Bank of the United States

chartered in 1791 for 20 years; was created to handle the financial needs and requirements of the central government of the newly formed United States, which had previously been thirteen individual colonies with their own banks, currencies, and financial institutions and policies. Officially proposed by Alexander Hamilton, Secretary of the Treasury, to the first session of the First Congress in 1790, the concept for the Bank had both its support and origin in and among Northern merchants and more than a few New England state governments. It was, however, eyed with great suspicion by the representatives of the Southern States, whose chief industry, agriculture, did not require centrally concentrated banks, and whose feelings of states' rights and suspicion of Northern motives ran strong.

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