american expeditionary force
About 2 million Americans went to France as members of this under General John J. Pershing
general "blackjack" pershing
Leader of the american troops. General and commander of all the forces during WWI
said troops remain in single command, troops wanted americans to fill trenches, blackjack said no
said americans couldnt go in combat till trained
motto "first to fight"
phase of the Russian Revolution; led by Lenin and the Bolsheviks and marked the first Marxist communist revolution of the 20th century
Lever Act 1917
gave president control over production, prices, and distribution over food and fuel
overman act 1918
reinforced presidents emergency war powers
effort: to win war
america was feeding themselves and european allies
in charge of food administration
, President from 1929 to 1933, called on businesses to help solve the situation rather than the government. Americans felt he did little to help them.
Created by Wilson during WWI - Led by Herbert Hoover - set up ration system to save food for soldiers
run by William McAdoo, set transportation limits and limits on wages
transported raw materials
limited passenger travel
William G McAdoo
the secretary of the treasury that was assigned to supervise the nation's railroads. He combined the railroads into one large rail system, eliminated competition, pooled all railroad equipment and eliminated many passenger trains to clear the track for the hauling of war materials and troops
War industries board
Agency created by Woodrow Wilson during WW1 to oversee the production and distribution of goods manufactured by nations war industries.
Head of the war industries board
war labor board
created by the US government to keep costs and wages under control for workers (laborers)
committee on public information
Organization also known as the Creel Commision which was responsible for rallying American's around the war effort through propaganda
Headed the Committee on Public Information, for promoting the war effort in WWI
urged people to spy on neighbors and report any suspicious activity. ANTIGERMAN
espionage act 1917
Law which punished people for aiding the enemy or refusing military duty during WW1
sedition act 1918
made it illegal for americans to speak disloyaly about the US government, constitution, or flag
executive order 1917
federal employers couldnt criticize war effort
Leader of the American Railway Union, he voted to aid workers in the Pullman strike. He was jailed for six months for disobeying a court order after the strike was over.
November 11, 1918; Germany signed an armistice (an agreement to stop fighting); this US holiday is now known as Veterans Day
treaty of versailes
Peace agreement intended to end the Great War and all future wars
league of nations
world congress of all countries to settle disputes peacefully
1. open diplomacy
2. freedom of seas
3. free trade
4. arms reduction
5. national boundaries
14. league of nations
a group of senators who oppose the league of nations
rural vs. urban
Rural- People moving from country to the city because they have fewer conveniences, education, money. People in rural areas are mostly farmers. Urban- People in cities are mostly factory, retail, and office workers. More conveniences, education, and money.
movement of individuals into a population
a law forbidding the sale of alcoholic beverages
change over time
Ku Klux Klan--Against Blacks, Jews, Catholics. Used terror to control them
Warren G. Harding
president after World War I who promised to return the US to normalism
included "bosses" and political machines, who used money, power, and fear to "win" elections.
teapot dome scandal
a government scandal involving a former United States Navy oil reserve in Wyoming that was secretly leased to a private oil company in 1921
election of 1928
Al Smith (Dem)
product of tammany hall, son of immigrant parents, unknown
Herbert Hoover (Rep), Hoover wins
incharge of ag, from iowa/engineer,
president of the U.S from 1923-1933 leader of the US in the beginning of the great depression. He didn't want the gov involved in the peoples lives and thought that the people should express their individual rights.
the Secretary of the Treasury during the Harding Administration. He felt it was best to invest in tax-exempt securities rather than in factories that provided prosperous payrolls. He believed in trickle down economics. (Hamiltonian economics)
govt gives tax breaks to company owners, who in turn give workers larger wages; INEFFECTIVE
causes of depression
Stock Market Crash of 1929; Business Depression; Banks Collapsed; Over production of Farm and Industry; Overexpansion of credit through installment-plan;
-over production, prices go down
production increases, prices increases
-imblalance of foreighn trade
-stock market crashed
-low marigin requirement
buying on the margin
buying stocks and borrowing money from a bank or broker; if the money way not paid back, the bank would foreclose on posessions; everyday people could buy stock; led to stock market crash because of overextention
Contrary to what was expected, Hoover took strong action against the depression. He created a volunteer cooperation, passed the Revenue Act, and strongly encouraged businesses to keep going and not lay people off. He also passed a moratorium on international debts.
Group of WWI vets. that marched to D.C. in 1932 to demand the immediate payment of their goverment war bonuses in cash
franklin d roosevelt
President of the US during Great Depression and World War II
the new deal
The programs and policies to promote economic recovery and social reform introduced during the 1930s by President Franklin D. Roosevelt
national banking act
1863 - Established system of national charters for banks
Civilian Conservation Corps. It was Relief that provided work for young men 18-25 years old in food control, planting, flood work, etc.
Work Progress Administration: Massive work relief program funded projects ranging from construction to acting; disbanded by FDR during WWII
Public Works Administration. Part of Roosevelts New Deal programs. Put people to work building or improving public buildings like schools, post offices,etc.
new deal & reform
laws to prevent another Depression
huey p long
nicknamed The Kingfish, was an American politician from the U.S. state of Louisiana. A Democrat, he was noted for his radical populist policies. He served as Governor of Louisiana from 1928 to 1932 and as a U.S. senator from 1932 to 1935. Though a backer of Franklin D. Roosevelt in the 1932 presidential election, Long split with Roosevelt in June 1933 and allegedly planned to mount his own presidential bid.
national banking acts 1935
acts of Congress that brought the 12 Fed Res Banks under the control of the Board of Governors
agricultural adjustment act
Restricted production during the New Deal by paying farmers to reduce crop area.
securities & exchange commission
an independent federal agency that oversees the exchange of securities to protect investors
tennessee valley authority
A relief, recovery, and reform effort that gave 2.5 million poor citizens jobs and land. It brought cheap electric power, low-cost housing, cheap nitrates, and the restoration of eroded soil.
2nd new deal
Legislative program focusing on REFORM begun by FDR in 1935 when the first attempt to end the Depression failed.
purge of 1938
changes & accomplishments of the new deal
John Maynard Keynes
British economist who argued that for a nation to recovery fully from a depression, the govt had to spend money to encourage investment and consumption
Election of 1940
Rossevelt (dem) vs. Wendell Wilkie (rep), Roosevelt wins ; FDR had to declare that he would not send Americans to war in order to win ; greatly plagued the years before WWII ; won in a landslide ; first time a president was elected for a third term
head of the Italian Fascist party. Mussolini was known as El Duce and was leader of Italy, the first Fascist regime, during World War II.
german leader of Nazi Party. 1933-1945. rose to power by promoting racist and national views
The political program that followed the destruction of the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1868, in which a collection of young leaders set Japan on the path of centralization, industrialization, and imperialism.
Emperor who forced the Japanese government to surrender, which ended World War II