Human Geography Unit 3

33 terms by Kay123K

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Period 6

Language

Webster's dictionary defines it as "A systematic means of communicating ideas or feelings by the use of articulate vocal sounds."

Dialect

A more regional / Cultural way of talking.

Language Family

A group of languages related through descendants from a previous ancestor

Language Subfamily

Close to a Language Family but more closely related.

Language Group

Subfamilies that were divided into groups which consist of sets of individual languages.

Isogloss

A line drawn on a map around the area in which a linguistic feature is to be found, such as a particular pronunciation of a given word.

Preliterate Society

Where few people developed and made a language but never wrote it down.

Standard Language

Quality of is a matter of cultural identity and national concern.

Indo-European languages

Is determined by genetic relationships

Language Convergence

Is a type of contact-induced change whereby languages with many bilingual speakers mutually borrow morphological and syntactic features, making their typology more similar.

Language Divergence

Linguistic speciation, or linguistic divergence.

Language Replacement

Language shift, sometimes referred to as language transfer or language replacement or assimilation, is the progressive process whereby a speech community of a language shifts to speaking another language.

Sound Shifts

Sound change includes any processes of language change that affect pronunciation (phonetic change) or sound system structures (phonological change)

Deep Reconstruction

Technique using the vocabulary of an extinct language to recreate the language that proceeded the extinct language.

Proto Indo European Nostratic

The unrecorded language from which all Indo-European languages are hypothesized to derive.

Amerind

any member of the peoples living in North or South America before the Europeans arrived.

Eskimo-Aleut

The family of languages comprising Inuit, Yupik, and Aleut.

Agriculture theory

An attempt to explain the pattern of agricultural land use in terms of accessibility , costs, distance, and prices.

Conquest theory

The conquest theory is the idea that the proto-indo-european language family was spread through the conquest of neighboring states, and as they were conquered they adopted the conquering state's language.

Toponym

A name derived from a place or region.

Official Language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction. Typically a nation's official language will be the one used in that nation's courts, parliament and administration.

Monolingual States

Countries where only one language is spoken.

Multilingual States

Countries in which more than one language is spoken.

Lingual franca

A common language between two different language speakers.

Pidgin

An artificial language used for trade between speakers of different languages.

Creole

A person descended from French ancestors in southern United States (especially Louisiana).

Esperanto

An artificial language based as far as possible on words common to all the European languages.

Racism

The prejudice that members of one race are intrinsically superior to members of other races.

Ethnicity

Identity with a group of people that share distinct physical and mental traits as a product of common heredity and cultural traditions.

Plural society

A society in which different cultural groups keep their own identity, beliefs, and traditions.

Ethnic islands

Small, usually rural and ethnically homogeneous enclaves situated within a larger and more diverse cultural context.

Cultural linkage

A culturally shared trait that gives an ethnic or cultural group a strengthened sense of awareness and self-identity.

Cultural revival

The process of continuous reinvigoration of cultural traits and behavior in communities geographically separated from their original source area.

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