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biology

virus

particle made up of nucleic acid, protein, and in some cases lipids that can replicate only by infecting living cells. NOT a cell.

prophage

the viral DNA that is embedded in the host cell's DNA

flagella

long, thin, whip-like structures, with a core of microtubules, that enable some cells to move

binary fission

a form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size

transformation

process in which one strain of bacteria is changed by a gene or genes from another strain of bacteria

capsid

the outer covering of protein surrounding the nucleic acid of a virus

bacteriophages

viruses that infect bacteria

lysogenic cycle

cycle in which a viral genome replicates as a provirus without destroying the host cell

reverse transcriptase

uses RNA as a template to make DNA, which then inserts into the host cell's genome

animal virus

...

endospore

a thick-walled protective spore that forms inside a bacterial cell and resists harsh conditions

facultative anaerobes

can survive with or without oxygen

chemoautotrophs

Autotrophic bacteria that can derive energy from chemical reactions of simple inorganic compounds

photoheterophs

sunlight ( energy source); organic cpds.;only some prokaryotes

pathogens

organisms that cause disease

cocci

any spherical or nearly spherical bacteria

spirillium

spiral shaped bacteria

archea

domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls that do not contain peptidoglycan/ DNA is distinct from bacteria

thermoacidophiles

live in very acidic environments that have very high temperatures

provirus

Viral DNA that is integrated into a host cell's chromosome and replicated each time the host cell replicates

b-cells

make antibodies, have a memory record of every cold/sickness one has had

memory b-cells

have a record of every sickness in order to remind the body of what to do to fight the sickness quicker each time one gets it

secondary immune response

The adaptive immune response provoked by a second exposure to an antigen. It differs from the primary response by starting sooner and building more quickly.

saprotophs

Organism that secretes digestive enzymes and absorbs the resulting nutrients back across the plasma membrane; fungus or bacterium that decomposes the remains of plants, animals, and microbes in the soil

thymus

a ductless glandular organ at the base of the neck that produces lymphocytes and aids in producing immunity. produces t-cells

vaccine

substance prepared from killed or weakened pathogens and introduced into a body to produce immunity

plasmid

circular DNA molecule found in bacteria

LSP

left sacrum posterior, gram negative bacteria have it

nucleiod

Region of prokaryotic cells where DNA is located

conjugation

the act of making or becoming a single unit

transduction

The process in which infection by a virus results in DNA being transferred from one bacterium to another

host

an organism that provides a source of energy for a virus or another organism

lytic cycle

cycle of viral infection; results in replication of virus and cell destruction

retrovirus

virus that contains RNA as its genetic information

prions

infections virus-like particles, only protein, NO DNA OR RNA

peptidoglycan

a protein-carbohydrate compound found in bacterial cell walls, gram positive bacteria have MORE of it

obligate anaerobes

Organisms that cannot live where molecular oxygen is present.

photoautotrophs

organisms that use the sun to generate their own food.

chemoheterotrophs

take in organic molecules for both energy and a supply of carbon

symbiotic

involving a close relationship of mutual dependence, benefiting each other

virulence factors

(what makes bacteria deadly) -exotoxin(secreted from cell) -pathogens that use pili to stick to one

bacilli

aerobic rod-shaped spore-producing bacterium

cyanobacteria

predominantly photosynthetic prokaryotic organisms-result of photosynthesis

halophiles

live in exreme salt water (Dead Sea, Great Salt lake)

methanogens

archaebacteria found in anaerobic environments such as animal intestinal tracts or sediments or sewage and capable of producing methane

helper t-cells

T cells that help the immune system by increasing the activity of killer cells and stimulating the suppressor T cells

killer t-cells

Lymphocytes that use enzymes to destroy the cell membranes of bacteria and other foreign invaders.

antibody

a substance produced by the body that destroys or inactivates an antigen that has entered the body

primary immune response

the initial immune response to an antigen, which appears after a lag of several days

parasite

an organism that lives on or in a host and causes harm to the host

3 domains

Bacteria, archaea, eukarya

lymph system

acts as an aid to the blood system and consists of the lymph spaces, lymph vessels, and lymph glands

HIV

the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)

enzyme

catalist

LPS

lipopolysanchride in a cell wall of a gram- cell

phage

virus

parasitic

living animals inside you

pathogen

anything that causes disease

polio

virus

H1N1

swine flu

salk

found vaccine against polio

jenner

found first vaccine

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