The Elements of Poetry

75 terms by wrightalli

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Lyric

subjective, reflective poetry with regular rhyme scheme and meter which reveals poet's thoughts and feelings to create a single, unique impression.

Narrative

non-dramatic, objective verse with regular rhyme scheme and meter which relates a story or narrative.

Sonnet

a rigid 14-line verse form.

Shakesperean sonnet

three quatrains and concluding couplet in iambic pentameter, rhyming abab cdcd efef gg or abba cddc effe gg.

Italian sonnet

an octave and sestet, between which a break in thought occurs. The traditional rhyme scheme is abba abba cde cde.

Ode

elaborate lyric verse which deals seriously with a dignified theme.

Blank verse

unrhymed lines of iambic pentameter.

Free verse

unrhymed lines without regular rhythm.

Epic

a long, dignified narrative poem which gives the account of a hero important to his nation or race.

Dramatic monologue

a lyric poem in which the speaker addresses himself to persons around him; his speech deals with a dramatic moment in his life and manifests his character.

Elegy

a poem of lament, meditating on the death of an individual.

Ballad

simple, narrative verse which tells a story to be sung or recited; the folk ballad is anonymously handed down, while the literary ballad has a single author.

Idyll

lyric poetry describing the life of the shepherd in pastoral, bucolic, idealistic terms.

Villanelle

french verse form, strictly calculated to appear simple and spontaneous; five tercets and a final quatrain, rhyming aba aba aba aba aba abaa. Lines 1,6,12,18 and 3,9,15,19 are refrain.

Light verse

general category of poetry written to entertain, such as lyric poetry, epigrams, and limericks. It can also have a serious side, as in parody or satire.

Haiku

Japanese verse in three lines of five, seven, and five syllables, often depicting a delicate image.

Limerick

humorous nonsense-verse in five anapestic lines rhyming aaba, a-lines being trimeter, and b-lines dimeter.

Iambic metric foot where / is stressed, and u is unstressed

u /

Trochaic metric foot where / is stressed, and u is unstressed

/ u

Anapestic metric foot where / is stressed, and u is unstressed

u u /

Dactyllic metric foot where / is stressed, and u is unstressed

/ u u

Spondaic metric foot where / is stressed, and u is unstressed

/ /

One metric foot

monometer

Two metric feet

dimeter

Three metric feet

trimeter

Four metric feet

tetrameter

Five metric feet

pentameter

Six metric feet

hexameter

Seven metric feet

heptameter

Eight metric feet

octometer [rare]

Two lines

couplet

Three lines

tercet

Four lines

quatrain

Five lines

cinquain

Six lines

sestet

Seven lines

septet

Eight lines

octet [rare]

9 or more lines

x-lined stanza

Amphibrach

a foot with unstressed, stressed, unstressed syllables

Anacrusis

an extra unaccented syllable at the beginning of a line before the regular meter begins

Amphimacer

a foot with stressed, unstressed, stressed syllables

Catalexis

an extra unaccented syllable at the ending of a line after the regular meter ends (opposite of anacrusis)

Caesura

a pause in the meter or rhythm of line

Enjambement

a run-on line, one continuing into the text without a grammatical break.

Rime

old spelling of rhyme, which is the repetition of like sounds at regular intervals, employed in versification, the writing of verse

End rhyme

rhyme occurring at the end of verse line; most common rhyme form

Internal rhyme

rhyme contained within a line of verse

Rhyme scheme

pattern of rhymes within a unit of verse; in analysis, each end rhyme-sound is represented by a letter

Masculine rhyme

rhyme in which only the last, accented syllable of the rhyming words correspond exactly in sound; most common kind of end rhyme

Feminine rhyme

rhyme in which two consecutive syllables of the rhyme-words correspond, the first syllable carrying the accent; double rhyme

Half rhyme

imperfect, approximate rhyme

Assonance

repetition of two or more vowel sounds within a line

Consonance

repetition of two or more consonant sounds within a line

Alliteration

repetition of two or more initial sounds in words within a line

Onomatopoeia

the technique of using a word whose sounds suggests its meaning

Cacophony

the use of compatible, harmonious sounds in close conjunction for effect; opposite of euphony

Euphony

the use of compatible, harmonious sounds to produce a pleasing, melodious effect

Metaphor

figure of speech which makes a direct comparison of two unlike objects by identification or substitution

Simile

a direct comparison of two unlike objects, using like or as

Conceit

an extended metaphor comparing to unlike objects with powerful effect

Personification

figure of speech in which objects and animals have human qualities

Apostrophe

addressing a person or personified object not present

Metonymy

the substitution of a word which relates to the object or person to be named, in place of the name itself

Synecdoche

figure of speech in which a part represents the whole object or idea

Hyperbole

gross exaggeration for effect: overstatement

Litotes

understatement for effect

Irony

the contrast between actual meaning and the suggestion of another meaning

Symbolism

the use of one object to suggest another, hidden object or idea

Imagery

the use of words to represent things, actions, or ideas by sensory description

Paradox

a statement which appears self-contradictory, but underlines a basis of truth

Oxymoron

contradictory terms brought together to express a paradox for strong effect

Allusion

a reference to an outside fact, event, or other source

Tone

the author's attitude toward his audience and toward his subject

Theme

author's major idea or meaning

Dramatic situation

the circumstance of the speaker

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