factors that affect ways we communicate: age. gender,ethnicity, geographical region, language background, and socioeconomic status
natural variations of language used by all speakers of that language
a gender based dialect
a group of people who use a particular dialect and share knowledge of communicative constraints and options in the community.Pragmatic dialect differences are less obvious, as in the various styles of storytelling
an individuals unique way of speasking
an impairment in the ability to receive, send process, and comprehend concepts or verbal,nonverbal and graphic symbol systems the disorder is simply one aspect of the individual
individuals at any age may be referred from various sources for communication evaluation
• All children from birth to 20 must have the opportunity to receive special services if needed.
• Children from birth to 36 months may go to special centers for screenings, whereas older children are screened in preschools and schools.
• Every state in the U.S. requires hearing screenings for newborns.
• SLPs can use their own screening measurement or one that is commercially available.
assessment of communication disorders
: Systematic process of obtaining information from many sources, through various means, and in different settings to verify and specify strengths and weaknesses, identify possible causes of problems, and make plans to address them.
Distinguishes an individual's difficulties from a broad range of possible problems. Includes a label and should reflect the person's ability to communicate, variability of symptoms, severity, and possible causes.
Working with the client to clarify abilities and limitations
Description and Quantification of Deficits and Strengths
Consistency of patterns is noted.
Statement of Severity
Determine whether disorder is profound, severe, moderate, mild, or borderline.
describes the underlying factor that led to the problem
factor that triggered the disorder
Maintaining perpetuating cause
something that keeps the problem going
has as identifiable physical cause
does not have identifiable physical cause
the treatment plan
First determine whether intervention is warranted, then describe the plan.
An informed prediction of the outcome of a disorder.
Clinicians must "provide services that are based on careful, professional reasoning."
Objectives of Intervention
• The client should show improvement that generalized to the real-world environment.
• What has been learned should become automatic.
• The client must be able to self-monitor.
• The client should make optimum progress in the minimum amount of time.
• Intervention should be sensitive to the personal and cultural characteristics of the client.
the use off trained target with different people in varied environmental settings and linguistic contexts
provides a starting pointy for planning therapy and measuring progress
statements that specify the target behavior in an observable and measurable way. what the client is expected to do, under what conditions and with what degree of success
: A systematic method of changing behavior. Establish target and collect baseline data.
SLP attempts to elicit the desired response from the client by providing a
The client responds and the clinician reinforces or provides corrective feedback.
After training, the SLP calculates accuracy and determines the next target.