what is cell's genetic control center?
double membrane; has pores; separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm
DNA in its stringy form; long fibers of DNA
controls protein synthesis- each gene is a code for making a different protein; contain DNA-genetic material of a cell
functions of the nucleus:
one chromatin fiber condensed
a collection of membraneous organelles that are interconnected structurally and functionally
manufacturing, storing, distributing; divides cell into separate compartments
what is the function of the endomembrane system?
synthesizes lipids; destructs toxins and drugs in liver cells; stores and releases calcium ion in muscle cells
what are the functions of smooth ER?
what are the functions of rough ER?
white blood cells
programed cell death
lysosomal storage disease
missing one or more enzymes of the lysosome; lysosomes become filled with indigestible substances interferes with various cell functions
lack a glycogen
lack enzymes needed to break down a lipid in nerve cell membranes
pump out excess water
organelle are bonded by...
stroma and granum
the inner membrane of a chloroplast contains
inter-membrane space; inner membrane; inside tubules and granum
the chloroplast is partitioned into 3 major areas:
main energy source for cellular work..
organize its structure and activities
the cells internal skeleton helps...
microfilaments; intermediate filaments; microtubles
3 main types of fibers:
a ring of 9 microtubles doublets surround a central pair of microtubles
single celled organisms use ________ to move.
cells interact with their environment and each other via...
animal cells are embedded in
a sticky layer of glycoproteins
tight; anchoring; gap
manufacturing; breakdown; energy processing; support, movement, and communication between cells
4 function groups of eukaryotic organelles:
proteins that are secreted by the cell via the endoplasmic reticulum
a sticky layer that surrounds cell walls, protecting the cell surface and sometimes helping it glue to the cell surfaces
a channel between adjacent tissue cells through which water and other small molecules can pass freely
one of the fluid-filled compartments in the mitchondrion
the region in a prokaryotic cell consisting of a concentrated mass of DNA
a network or microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments
what is the cytoskeleton made of?
involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water
a structure that connects cells within a tissue to one another
plant cell junctions
a protein covalently attached to a carbohydrate
thinnest; made of actin; allow the cell to move; solid, twisted double membrane; supports the cell's shape
reinforce cell; anchor certain organelles
thickest; hollow; give the cell rigidity; provide anchors for organelles; act as tracks for organelle movement
many short structures made of microtubules; use to move the cell or move material across the cell
single, long, whip-like structure made of microtubules
bind the cell together to form a leak proof sheet; ex. digestive system
link the cells that subject to stretch or undergo mechanical stress; ex. skin and heart
allow substances to flow from cell to cell; ex. heart muscle cells