Bios 102 ch. 9,10,12

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How many NADH are produced by glycolysis?

2

In glycolysis, ATP molecules are produced by _____.

substrate-level phosphorylation

Which of these is NOT a product of glycolysis?

FADH2

In glycolysis, what starts the process of glucose oxidation?

ATP

In glycolysis there is a net gain of _____ ATP.

2

Which of these enters the citric acid cycle?

acetyl CoA

In the citric acid cycle, ATP molecules are produced by _____.

substrate-level phosphorylation

Which of these is NOT a product of the citric acid cycle?

acetyl CoA

For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ acetyl CoA enter the citric acid cycle.

2

For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ NADH + H+ are produced by the citric acid cycle.

6

In cellular respiration, most ATP molecules are produced by _____.

oxidative phosphorylation

The final electron acceptor of cellular respiration is _____.

oxygen

During electron transport, energy from _____ is used to pump hydrogen ions into the _____.

NADH and FADH2 ... intermembrane space

The proximate (immediate) source of energy for oxidative phosphorylation is _____.

kinetic energy that is released as hydrogen ions diffuse down their concentration gradient

Cellular respiration: Net Input

NAD+, ADP, Glucose

Cellular Respiration: Net Output

NADH, ATP, pyruvate

Cellular Respiration: Not input nor output

acetyl CoA, coenzyme A, CO2, O2

acetyl CoA formation: Net Input

NAD+, pyruvate, Coenzyme A

acetyl CoA formation: Net Output

CO2, Acetyl CoA, NADH

acetyl CoA formation:Not input nor output

ADP, ATP,O2, Glucose

citric acid cycle: input

Acetyle CoA, ADP, NAD+

citric acid cycle: Output

ATP, CO2, Coenzyme A, NADH

citric acid cycle: No output or Input

O2, pyruvate, glucose

Oxidative Phosphorylation:input

ADP, O2, NADH

Oxidative Phosphorylation:Output

ATP, NAD+, water

Oxidative Phosphorylation:no output or input

CO2, pyruvate, Acetyle CoA, glucose, Coenzyme A

Oxidized

When a compound donates(loses) electrons, that compound becomes____. Such a compound is ofton referred to as an electron donor.

Reduced

When a compound accepts(gains) electrons, that compound becomes___. Such a compound is often referred to as an electron acceptor.

Glucose

In glycolysis, the carbon-containing compound that functions as the electron donor is____.

Pyruvate

Once the electron donor is glycolysis gives up its electrons, it is oxidized to a compound called___.

NAD+

is the compound that functions as the electron acceptor in glycolysis.

NADH

The reduced form of the electron acceptor in glycolysis.

glycolysis

a metabolic process that breaks down carbohydrates and sugars through a series of reactions to either pyruvic acid or lactic acid and release energy for the body in the form of ATP.

acetyl CoA

The entry compound for the Krebs cycle in cellular respiration; formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme.

Reduced or Oxidized to: CO2

pyruvate is oxidized to___.

Reduced or Oxidized to: NADH

NAD+ is reduced to____.

Reduced or Oxidized to: FAD

is reduced to FADH2

In mitochondrial electron transport, what is the direct role of O2?

to function as the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain

What would happen to the cell's rate of glucose utilization?

Glucose utilization would increase a lot.

Which of the following best describes the main purpose of the combined processes of glycolysis and cellular respiration?

conserving the energy in glucose and related molecules in a chemical form that cells can use for work.

In the combined processes of glycolysis and cellular respiration, what is consumed and what is produced

Glucose is consumed, and carbon dioxide is produced.

Which of the following describes the process of glycolysis

It represents the first stage in the chemical oxidation of glucose by a cell.
It produces ATP and NADH.

Which statement about the citric acid cycle is correct

The last reaction in the citric acid cycle produces a product that is a substrate for the first reaction of the citric acid cycle.

The electrons stripped from glucose in cellular respiration end up in which compound? (Concept 9.4)

water

_____ has a longer wavelength than _____.

red, green

Which of these equations best summarizes photosynthesis?

6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2

The light reactions of photosynthesis use _____ and produce _____.

water ... NADPH

After 3-PGA is phosphorylated, it is reduced by _____.

NADPH.....supplies the electrons that reduce the phosphorylated 3-PGA.

How many carbon dioxide molecules must be added to RuBP to make a single molecule of glucose?

Six carbon dioxide molecules are required to produce two G3P molecules, which can be combined to make one glucose molecule.

In the Calvin cycle, how many ATP molecules are required to regenerate RuBP from five G3P molecules?

3

Conserving water

simultaneously reduces the amount of carbon dioxide available to the plant.

In C4 and CAM plants carbon dioxide is fixed in the _____ of mesophyll cells.

cytoplasm

C4 plants differ from C3 and CAM plants in that C4 plants _____.

transfer fixed carbon dioxide to cells in which the Calvin cycle occurs

Plants are photoautotrophs. What does this mean?

They use light energy to drive the synthesis of organic molecules
They are in the same category as algae and cyanobacteria.
They make their own food from inorganic materials.
They are among the producers of the biosphere.

The ultimate source of energy to support most life on Earth is _____. (Overview)

sunlight

The photosynthetic membranes are found in the _____ in plant cells. (Concept 10.1)

chloroplasts

In the electromagnetic spectrum, the type of radiation that we call visible light occurs between _____. (Concept 10.2)

ultraviolet radiation and infrared radiation

Which of the following is a product of the light reactions of photosynthesis? (Concept 10.2)

NADPH
oxygen
ATP
high-energy electrons

When light strikes chlorophyll molecules, they lose electrons, which are ultimately replaced by _____. (Concept 10.2)

splitting water

Photosynthesis is a redox reaction. This means that H2O is _____ during the light reactions and CO2 is_ _____ during the Calvin Cycle. (Concept 10.2 and 10.3)

oxidized...reduced

Which of the following products of the light reactions of photosynthesis is consumed during the Calvin cycle? (Concept 10.3)

NADPH

NADPH

electron carrier that provides high-energy electrons for photosynthesis

The overall function of the Calvin cycle is _____. (Concept 10.3)

making sugar

C4 plants occur more commonly in desert conditions because _____. (Concept 10.4)

they can fix carbon at the lower CO2 concentrations that develop when the stomata are closed

During _____ both the contents of the nucleus and the cytoplasm are divided.

the mitotic phase

During _____ the cell grows and replicates both its organelles and its chromosomes.

S phase

Nucleoli are present during _____.

interphase

Cytokinesis often, but not always, accompanies _____.

telophase

Chromosomes become visible during _____.

prophase

Centromeres divide and sister chromatids become full-fledged chromosomes during _____.

anaphase

Spindle fibers attach to kinetochores during _____.

prometaphase

During prophase a homologous pair of chromosomes consists of _____.

two chromosomes and four chromatids

Sister Chromatid

DNA replication produces two identical DNA Molecules called____, which separate during mitosis

Centromere

After chromosomes condense, the___ is the region where the identical DNA molecules are most tightly attached to each other.

Kinetchore(s)

During mitosis, microtubules attach to chromosomes at the___.

interphase

in the dividing cells, most of the cells growth occurs during___.

mitotic spindle

a cell structure consisting of microtubules, which forms during early mitosis and plays a role in cell division.

chromatin

During interphase, most of the nucleus is filled with a complex of DNA and protein in a dispersed form

Cytokinesis

In most Eukaryotes division of the nucleus is followed by__ when the rest of the cell divides.

Centrosome

the organizing centers for microtubules involve in separating chromosomes during mitosis.

Which of the following is a function of meiosis but not mitosis in eukaryotes? (Concept 12.1)

production of animal gametes

A human bone marrow cell, in prophase of mitosis, contains 46 chromosomes. How many chromatids does it contain? (Concept 12.1)

92

It is difficult to observe individual chromosomes with a light microscope during interphase because _____. (Concept 12.1)

they have uncoiled to form long, thin strands

The kinetochores _____. (Concept 12.2)

are sites at which microtubules attach to chromosomes

Which of the following correctly matches a phase of the cell cycle with its description? (Concept 12.2)

G1: follows cell division

In some organisms such as certain fungi and algae, cells undergo the cell cycle repeatedly without subsequently undergoing cytokinesis. What would result from this? (Concept 12.2)

large cells containing many nuclei

Which of the following is/are difference(s) between the fission of a bacterium and mitosis in human cells? (Concept 12.2)

All of the above are differences between the fission of a bacterium and human cell division.

Cytochalasin B is a chemical that disrupts microfilament formation. This chemical would interfere with _____. (Concept 12.2)

cleavage

Cells will usually divide if they receive the proper signal at a checkpoint in the _____ phase of the cell cycle. (Concept 12.3)

G1

A benign tumor, but not a malignant tumor, is one in which the cancerous cells _____. (Concept 12.3)

remain confined to their original site

prophase

the first stage of mitosis or meiosis in eukaryotic cell division, during which the nuclear envelope breaks down and strands of chromatin form into chromosomes

prometaphase

The second stage of mitosis, in which discrete chromosomes consisting of identical sister chromatids appear, the nuclear envelope fragments, and the spindle microtubules attach to the kinetochores of the chromosomes.

metaphase

Second phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell.

anaphase

the third phase of mitosis, during which the chromosome pairs separate and move toward opposite poles

telophase

the final stage of meiosis when the chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle

cytokinesis

The final stage of the cell cycle, in which the cell's cytoplasm divides, distributing the organelles into each of the two new cells.

NADH

electron carrier that stores energy used to make ATP

NAD+

electron carrier involved in glycolysis

substrate-level phosphorylation

The formation of ATP by an enzyme directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism.

FADH2

electron carrier produced during the Krebs cycle

Krebs cycle

in all plants and animals: a series of enzymatic reactions in mitochondria involving oxidative metabolism of acetyl compounds to produce high-energy phosphate compounds that are the source of cellular energy

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