Emperor Constantine issues the Edict of Milan legalizing Christianity.
Four line staff notation first used.
Founder of Greek Music theory
the most revered authority on music in the middle ages, he also wrote, "De institutione musica."
issued the Edict of Milan legalizing Christianity.
The pope who is acknowledged by the English as the creator of chant, because of his establishment of the church there.
Developed 4-line staff, solmization syllables; his "Micrologus" was first comprehensive treatise on musical practice.
A legendary German Minnesanger.
Wsalter von der Vogelweide
Leading minnesanger; political and moralistic songs as well as love songs.
Bernart de Ventadorn
One of the greatest troubadors.
Adam de la Halle
Last of the trouveres; monophonic chansons; motets; oldest surviving polyphonic secular songs (rondeaux).
First great Notre Dame school composer; two-part organum.
Successor of Leonin; three and four-part organum and clausulae.
Franco of Cologne
Formalized mensural notation in treatise, "Ars Cantus Mensurabilis."
Paired Mass movements, cantus firmus masses, motets.
Masses and Motets.
Philippe de Vitry
Helped establish mensural notation in treatise, "Ars Nova; introduced isorhythmic motets.
Guillaume de Machaut
Lais, motets, ballades, rondeaux, virelais; oldest surviving complete Mass by one composer.
Masses, Chansons. Burgundian court member.
Chansons, especially rondeaux; also motets, Mass movements.
Ballate; also madrigals, caccie; renowned organist.
Brought out the first collection of polyphonic music printed entirely from moveable type.
Hildegard von Bingen
A nun who had the most surviving chants most sacred and for offices.
Monks of Solesmes
Prepared modern editions of chant, as well as added interpretive signs that are not in the originals.
Composing one line at a time.
Composing all the lines at one time.
A repertory of ecclesiastical chant used in Milan.
A repertory of ecclesiastical chant used in the Roman Catholic Church.
Song to or in honor of a god. In the Christian tradition, song of praise to God.
English song, usually on a religious subject, with several stanzas and a burden, or refrain.
Ethos in music
Character, mood, or emotional effect of a certain tonos, mode, meter, or melody.
Greater Perfect System
A system of tetrachords spanning two octaves.
A scale of four notes spanning a perfect fourth.
The six notes represented by the syllables ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la, which could be transposed to three positions.
technique in which voices trade segments of music, so that the same combination of lines is heard twice or more, but with different voices singing each line.
First item in the mass proper, originally sung for the entrance procession, comprising an antiphon, psalm verse, lesser doxology, and a reprise of the antiphon.
A musical setting of the mass that uses multiple voices of another pre-existing piece of music, such as a fragment of a motet or a secular chanson, as part of its melodic material.
The repertory of the Roman Catholic Church in Gaul.
The repertory of the Roman Catholic Church in Spain.
Utilized chant at the cathedral of Salzburg with the British.
The music of the Byzantine Empire composed to Greek texts as ceremonial, festival, or church music.
Transpose into characteristic octave of that key.
The classes of tetrachord: Diatonic, Chromatic, and Enharmonic.
Two with a shared note.
Two separated by a whole tone.
is a season observed in many Western Christian churches, a time of expectant waiting and preparation for the celebration of the Nativity of Jesus at Christmas.
a form of medieval French verse used often in poetry and music. It is one of the three formes fixes (the others were the ballade and the rondeau) and was one of the most common verse forms set to music in Europe from the late thirteenth to the fifteenth centuries.
an ancient hymn of praise to the Trinity which is chanted or read daily in the Eastern Orthodox and Greek-Catholic Churches.
a doxology, a short hymn of praise to God in various Christian liturgies.
Latin for solemn mass, and is a name which has been applied to a number of musical settings of the mass, especially particularly serious or large-scale ones.
an archaic term for the drone or base in some musical instruments, also the refrain.
literally means "read Mass"
Missa pro defunctis
A requiem mass.
Writing in parallel fifths.
Writing in an octave.
Writing in parallel fourths.
focused on the representation of Bible stories in churches as tableaux with accompanying antiphonal song.
an official liturgical book of the Roman Rite containing chants, including the Gradual but many more as well, for use at Mass.
Ut quant laxis
is the song Guido d'Arezzo used to name the tones of the Greater Perfect System.
an official liturgical book containing antiphons.
a book of commonly used Gregorian chants in the Catholic tradition, compiled by the monks of the Abbey of Solesmes in France.
Diabolus in musica
traditionally defined as a musical interval composed of three whole tones or a tri-tone.
was a setting of the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Mass, in which each of the movements - Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei - shared a common musical theme, commonly a cantus firmus, thus making it a unified whole.
he liturgical orientation in which the priest celebrates Mass facing the people.
the basic element of Western and Eastern systems of musical notation prior to the invention of five-line staff notation.
The voices in a motet that are above and do not hold the chant.
The voice, usually the tenor, that holds the original chant line in a motet.
In campo aperto
the use of hand signals to direct vocal music performance.
Magnus liber organi
a compilation of the medieval music known as organum. Most accredited to the Notre Dame composers Leonin and Perotin.
The line right above the tenor.
The highest line in organum.
The line that has the original chant line involved in it.
a pre-existing melody forming the basis of a polyphonic composition.
Every syllable has a single note.
Long melodic passages on a single syllable.
One neume per syllable.
Trope refers to additions of new music to pre-existing chants in use in the Western Christian Church.
Middle Eastern mode.
Middle Eastern Rhythm
Medieval polyphony improvised or notated in which all voices move at essentially the same place.
Sung in Latin; Borrows texts and music from liturgy; Surviving dramas are Easter and Christmas.
Repeated rhythm in isorhythm
Repeated melody in isorhythm
Book large enough for entire choir to read polyphonic works with all parts.
Compositions written to substitute for the portions in discant style. The earliest motets were this with added text to the upper voices.
A brief composition for two to three voices. The tenor line is drawn from chant melodies and the two voices above are more rhythmically and melodically active sometimes having independent texts and languages from the tenor line.
A motet that utilizes the repetition of a rhythmic pattern throughout a voice part; Found in 1300-1400 motets; Usually found in tenor.
Service in Roman Catholic Church; Chants, prayers, and readings.
Texts and music appropriate for any day.
Texts and music only for a particular feast.
Term for certain vocal forms as they were known in the 15th century; also a musical texture used widely in both secular and sacred compositions of that century.
one of the present Catholic liturgical books containing Antiphons.
Motets with short, Latin, and sacred texts intended for devotional use.
A type of responsorial psalm that usually came first in a service.
Sung at the conclusion of any seasonal prayer services.
Were a group of clergy who wrote bibulous, satirical Latin poetry in the 12th and 13th centuries.
Refers to poet-composers who were roughly contemporary with and influenced by the troubadours but who composed their works in the northern dialects of France.
Was in use from the late 13th to the 15th century. It has the musical structure AbbaA, with the first and last stanzas having the same texts.
A melody borrowed from another source (usually chant) and then ornamented.
Musica ficta/ Musica falsa
A term used in European music theory from the late 12th century to about 1600 to describe any pitches, whether notated or to be added by performers in accordance with their training, that lie outside the system of musica recta or musica vera ('correct' or 'true' music) as defined by the hexachord system of Guido of Arezzo.
Any one of three fourteenth and fifteenth centuries French poetic forms, the ballade, rondeau and virelai.
Set patterns of long and short durations (or rhythms).
Rhythmic Mode 1
Rhythmic Mode 2
Rhythmic Mode 3
Dotted Quarter, Eighth, Quarter
Rhythmic Mode 4
Eighth, Quarter, Dotted Quarter
Rhythmic Mode 5
Dotted Quarter, Dotted Quarter
Rhythmic Mode 6
St. Martial School
A medieval school of composition centered in the Abbey of Saint Martial, Limoges, France. It is known for the composition of tropes, sequences, and early organum. In this respect, it was an important precursor to the Notre Dame School.
A "responsory" by a choir or congregation, usually in Gregorian chant, to a psalm or other text in a religious service or musical work.
A type of texture characterized by the simultaneous variation of a single melodic line.
Kithara or Aulos
An ancient Greek musical instrument in the lyre or lyra family.
Cultural material and traditions transmitted orally from one generation to another.
A theory about the composition of a melody, melodies, or piece based on pre-existing melodic figures and formulas.
Lesser Perfect System
The octave species continued to be used as a basis of the theory of modes in combination with other elements particularly the system of octo echos borrowed from the Byzantine Church.
One of the eight systems of pitch organization used to describe Gregorian chant.
Church Mode 1 (Dorian)
Final is D. Doesn't go below initial note by three notes.
Church Mode 2 (Hypodorian)
Final is D. DOES go below initial note by more than three notes.
Church Mode 3 (Phyrgian)
Final is E. Doesn't go below initial note by three notes.
Church Mode 4 (Hypophrygian)
Final is E. DOES go below initial note by three notes.
Church Mode 5 (Lydian)
Final is F. Doesn't go below initial note by three notes.
Church Mode 6 (Hypolydian)
Final is F. DOES go below initial note by three notes.
Church Mode 7 (Mixolydian)
Final is G. Doesn't go below initial note by three notes.
Church Mode 8 (Hypomixolydian)
Final is G. DOES go below initial note by three notes.
The tradition of lyric and song writing in Germany which flourished in the 12th century and continued into the 14th century.
The period of the liturgical year from Ash Wednesday to Easter.
A Medieval and early Renaissance musical form, based on the contemporary popular poetic rondeau form. It is distinct from the 18th century rondo, though the terms are likely related.
The evening prayer service in the Western Catholic, Eastern (Byzantine) Catholic, and Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and Lutheran liturgies of the canonical hours.
A melodic formula to which the verses of the Psalms and certain other texts are sung.
A repeated musical pitch around which the other pitches of the chant gravitate, or by extension, the entire melodic formula that centers on one or two such pitches.
A mnemonic device used to assist singers in learning to sight-sing.
An official liturgical book of the Roman Rite containing chants, including the Gradual but many more as well, for use at Mass.
A lament or dirge, a song or poem expressing grief or mourning.
A medieval European conception of nobly and chivalrously expressing love and admiration.
Part of the proper of the liturgical celebration of the Eucharist for many Christian denominations, which is used instead of the Alleluia during Lenten or pre-Lenten seasons, in a Requiem Mass, and on a few other penitential occasions, when the joyousness of an Alleluia is deemed inappropriate.
The immediate restatement of a motif or longer melodic (or harmonic) passage at a higher or lower pitch in the same voice.
A type of sacred, but non-liturgical vocal composition for one or more voices.
The first responsorial psalm in a service.
A type of cadence, a technique in music composition, named after Francesco Landini (1325-1397), a blind Florentine organist, in honor of his extensive use of the technique. The technique was used extensively in the 14th and early 15th century.
Neumes were carefully placed at different heights in relation to each other.
Vibrating stringed instrument.
Vibrating instrument without strings.
A single melody is shared between two (or occasionally more) voices such that alternately one voice sounds while the other rests.
a musical style which flourished in France and the Burgundian Low Countries in the Late Middle Ages: more particularly, in the period between the preparation of the Roman de Fauvel (1310 - 1314) and the death of the composer Guillaume de Machaut in 1377 (whose poems were a large inspiration for Johannes Ciconia) .
A French Minstrel
Like a canon.
a musical style characterized by rhythmic and notational complexity, centered around Paris, Avignon in southern France, also in northern Spain at the end of the fourteenth century.
a manuscript or printed book which contains a collection of chansons, or polyphonic and monophonic settings of songs, hence literally "song-books,"
French for false bass - is a technique of musical harmonisation used in the late Middle Ages and early Renaissance, particularly by composers of the Burgundian School
a verse form typically consisting of three eight-line stanzas, each with a consistent metre and a particular rhyme scheme. The last line in the stanza is a refrain. The stanzas are followed by a four-line concluding stanza (an envoi) usually addressed to a prince. The rhyme scheme is therefore usually 'ababbcbC ababbcbC ababbcbC bcbC', where the capital 'C' is a refrain.
a musical form of the pattern AAB.
the most important form of vernacular sacred song in Italy in the late medieval era and Renaissance
a medieval monophonic song, characteristic of the Galician-Portuguese lyric.
an anthology of secular songs published by Ottaviano Petrucci in 1501 in Venice. It was the first book of music ever to be printed using movable type, and was hugely influential both in publishing in general, and in dissemination of the Franco-Flemish musical style.
a composer and performer of Occitan lyric poetry during the High Middle Ages (1100-1350).