is a systematic means of communicating idea or feelings by the use of conventionalized signs,gestures,marks,or especially articulate vocal sounds.
is the type of language, dialect has distinctive grammar and vocab and pronunciation variation.
is thought to have a shared, but fairly distant, orgin.
is their community in more definite and subfamilies are divided into language group.
is the consist of set of individual language.
a geographic boundary within which a particular linguistic feature occurs.
people who speak their language but do not write it, are at a disadvantage.
the variant of a language that a country's political and intellectual elite seek to promote as the norm for use in schools, government, the media, and other aspects of public life.
The Indo-European languages are a family (or phylum) of several hundred related languages and dialects, including most major languages of Europe, the Iranian plateau, and South Asia, and historically also predominant in Anatolia and Central Asia.
collapsing of two languages into one resulting from the consistent spatial interaction of peoples with different languages.
hen a language breaks into dialects due to a lack of spatial interaction among speakers of a language, and continued isolation causes new languages to be formed.
(extinction): obliteration of an entire culture through war, disease, assimilation, or any combination of the three.
A systematic change in the pronunciation of a set of speech sounds as a language evolves
is a technique that takes humanity's linguistic family tree back thousands of years.
(or closely related language), the predecessor of latin,greek, and sanskirt,among other ancient languages.
hypothesized ancestral language of Proto-Indo-European, as well as other ancestral language families.
The next oldest,next largest, but much less widely diffused family is the na-dene. which encompasses language spoken by native americans of northwest canada and part of alaska as well as by the apache and navajo.
the oldest,largest,and most widely distributed family is the Amerind superfamily,which is spread from the shores of Hudson bay to the coast of the tierra del fuego.
last to arrive in north america were speaker of the.....family of languages,who are still concentrated along arctic and near-arctic shores.
heory of the diffusion of the Proto-Indo-European language into Europe through the innovation of agriculture (being more efficient than hunting and gathering). Its hearth is around modern day Anatolia (in Turkey; Renfrew Hypothesis - Colin Renfrew).
theory of the diffusion of the Proto-Indo-European language into Europe through the speakers' overpowering of earlier inhabitants through warfare and technology (e.g., fighting on horseback). Its hearth is around modern day Ukraine (Kurgan Hypothesis - Marija Gimbutas).
the study of the origins and meaning of place-names.
in multilingual countries the language selected, often by the educated and politically powerful elite, to promote internal cohesion, usually language of the courts and government.
country in which only one language is primarily spoken (e.g., Portugal, Japan, Venezuela, Poland, ...).
country in which two or more languages are spoken
a term deriving from"Frankish language" and applying to a tongue spoken in ancient Mediterranean ports that consisted of mixture of Italian,french, Greek, Spanish, and even some Arabic. today is refers to a common language a second language that can be spoken and understood by many peoples, although they speak other language..
a lingua franca that has been simplified and modified through contract with other language
ethnic term first applied in the Caribbean region to the native born descendants of the Spanish conquerors and their local consorts
a made-up Latin-based language, which its European proponents in the early twentieth century hoped would become a global language.
frequently referred to as a system or attitude toward visible differences in individuals,racism is a ideology of difference that ascribes significance and meaning to culturally,socially,and politically constructed ideas based on phenotypical features.
The fact or state of belonging to a social group that has a common national or cultural tradition.
a society composed of numerous ethnic groups.
small,usually rural and ethnically homogeneous enclaves situated within a larger and more diverse culture context.
a culturally shared trait that gives an ethnic or cultural group a strengthened sense of awareness and self-identity.
people from similar ethic backgrounds initially clustered in particular areas but later diffused outward, moving some distance from the community that served as a stepping stone during the difficult days of immigration