Incisors are used for
Canine/cuspid used for
grasp, hold, puncture, pierce, tear
canine/ cuspid shape
characteristics for canines
longest teeth, resistant to rotation, single cusp
Premolar/ bicuspid used for
hold and grind
premolar/ bicuspid shape
cross between canine and molar
characteristics of premolar/ bicuspid
only found in permanent dentition, 1st, and 2nd
molars are used for
grind or chew
4 or more cusps
primary (deciduous) and permanent
primary (deciduous) and permanent
clinical crown is
visible portion of the crown. It can vary or change depending on the gingival margin
part of the tooth embedded in the jaw. Can also vary. Ex: partially erupted 3rd molar, if cusp tips are the only thing showing then that is the clinical crown, everything not showing or underneath the gingiva would be the clinical root
from cusp tips to CEJ. Covered in enamel and this classification of the crown does NOT change
apical to CEJ and covered in cementum, again it does not change.
hardest structure in the body
enamel is the
outer covering of the crown
can you make more enamel
% of enamel that is organic, and inorganic
96% inorganic, 4% organic
enamel forming cells
lines of retzius
aka dead ameloblasts
Nasmyth's membrane, located on the outer surface of the tooth
line that represents enamel that was formed before birth and after birth
harder than bone and the bulk of the tooth structure
cells that form dentin
3 main types of dentin
1. primary 2. secondary 3. tertiary aka reparative/ irregular/ sclerotic
capable of adding new dentin
dentin formed due to trauma
tertiary aka irregular, sclerotic, reparative
slow and continuous dentin
fast, sporadic, erratic dentin
% of dentin that is organic/ inorganic
70& inorganic, 30% organic
growth lines in the dentin
lines of owen
lines of owen can be seen on a
as hard as bone and next to bone
main function of cementum
provide a medium for the attachment of the tooth to the alveolar bone
cells that form cementum
cementum that covers entire root
acellular (not living)
cementum that covers apical 1/3 of the root
cellular cementum can
reproduce itself, eruption- slow cont. growth, hypercementosis- rapid uncontrolled growth, ankylosis- cementum fused to bone.
% of cementum that is inorganic/ organic
the pulp is
soft tissue, center of tooth, and divided into 2 areas.
2 areas the pulp is divided into
1. pulp chamber 2. pulp canals
located within the coronal portion of the tooth
located within the roots of the tooth
pulp canals aka root canals
runs entire length of the interior of the tooth
pulp consists of
conn. tissue, blood vessels, and nerves.
pulp does what
maintains organic tissues of tooth, eliminates wastes, supplies nutrients, acts as a pain receiver for the tooth.
1-32 perm. teeth and A-T prim. teeth. Name the numbering system
universal. Most US dentists use this. 1-16 = max. 17-32 = mand. A-J= max. K- T= mand
Palmer numbering system for perm and prim
perm= 1-8. prim= A-E. Starts at midline, and indicated with brackets
FdI numbering system
Perm= 1-8. Prim. 1-5. Use quadrants to number each bracket. quadrant first then number of tooth when you write it out. ex: 11 = quad 1 and tooth 1, right max central incisor
lip or cheek side
cheek side for posterior teeth
lip side which is anterior teeth
tongue side of uppers and lowers
palate side of uppers
proximal surfaces means
side next to adjacent tooth
surface closest to midline
surface furthest from the midline
chewing edge for anterior teeth
chewing surface for posterior teeth
line angles are..
where 2 surfaces meet
when naming line angels mesio and ____ are named first then what
disto. Then either incisal/ occlusal. Then facial (buccal or labial)/ lingual (or palatal)
point angles are
where 3 surfaces meet
Put in order for naming point angles. 1) Facio/ lingo 2) incisal/ occlusal 3) mesio/ disto
3, 1, 2,
Due to genetic makeup
might have been inherited but not sure
condition occurs at or before birth
teeth too large
teeth too small
term for extra teeth and the % of the population who have this abnormality
hyperdontia, .1%- 3.6%
supernumerary teeth are mostly on
maxillary arch, it outnumbers mandibular 9 to 1
a supernumerary tooth at the maxillary midline
mesiodens and it is the most common type of supernumerary and happens more often that any other abnormalities.
Located distal to maxillary 3rd molars. Next most common
distomolars aka 4th molars
extra premolars are
less common distomolars
supernumerary tooth that is situated facially or lingually to molars. What % of supernumeraries are these
paramolars. 10% of supernumeraries
a supernumerary that resembles a regular tooth
cone shaped supernumerary
very small supernumerary
tubercle. Has small pointed cusp
Less than normal number of teeth
True anodontia is
congenitally missing teeth
all missing teeth is what type of anodontia
Some missing teeth is termed
most come partial anodontia are the
3rd molars in maxillary arch more often that mandibular
2nd most commonly missing 1%-2% (partial anodontia) are the
2rd most commonly missing 1% (partial anodontia) are the
mandibular 2nd premolar
tumor of tooth- like (calcified) structures
odontoma. non pathological
single mass of odontoma
several small rudimentary teeth of odontoma
caused by invagination of tooth crown before mineralization. Most commonly affecting perm. max. laterals.
dens in dente
sharp bend in root and crown. Most commonly affecting the 3rd molars, and hard to extract
short roots, usually generalized
tooth attempts to divide into 2
2 crowns, 1 root, 1 pulp canal would be
bifid (bifurcated) crown. extra tooth appearance
2 crowns, 2 roots (usually 1 pulp) and generally anteriors, and primary teeth.. would be
twinning. Extra tooth appearance
2 teeth become 1, 1 pulp canal would be what? and where does it fuse?
fusion and fused at dentin. One less tooth that normal.
Term for the fusion of 2 teeth after root formation, originally 2 separate teeth, and usually effects which teeth? And where is it fused?
concrescence, fusion of cementum, and affecting maxillary molars
Term for Excessive cementum formation at the root, hard to remove a tooth with this. Pathogenic or not?
Hypercementosis, and not a pathogenic condition.
Excessive cementum formation at root and IS a pathogenic condition
cementoma. Pathogenic because of the localized bone destruction
excessive enamel on root furcation? cause by what? common or not?
enamel pearls, and caused by misplaced ameloblasts. yes it is common.
abnormality causing notched incisors? cause by what?
hutchinson's incisors, caused by prenatal syphilis
Abnormality causing irregular- shaped molars/ poor cusps? cause by what?
mulberry molars. Caused by prenatal syphilis. Look like little knobs
abnormal enamel development due to fever, systemic diseases, or heredity. How many types?
enamel dysplasia. 2 types?
type of enamel dysplasia causing pits and grooves caused by inhibited enamel formation?
enamel hypoplasia... doesn't form all the way
type of enamel dysplasia that inhibits calcification of enamel. How many forms of this type?
enamel hypocalcification. 4
type of enamel hypocalcification causing discoloration thats caused by too much fluoride during formation
enamel fluorosis. Either from the mother or ingested as a child
enamel hypocalcification type that is severe fluoride discoloration (brown) often with pits
mottled enamel. Severe fluorosis
Most common forms of enamel hypocalcification are
enamel fluorosis and mottled enamel
hereditary development anomaly related to hypocalcification. Caused thin enamel often stained yellow or brown, typically affects primary and permanent... sometimes only permanent.
Hypocalcification of a single tooth (localized), usually max. incisor, usually a result of trauma or infection
Hereditary defect in dentin, causing the tooth to look gray, brown, or yellow, translucent hue (shiny), pulp cavity filled with dentin (shows up in xrays), and patient will have blue sclera
Caused by antibiotic ____ either taken by expecting mother or young child when tooth crowns are forming. Causes yellow, brown or grayish blue color on teeth.
Put these abnormal crown shapes in order from most common to least. 1) perm. max lateral 2) max. 3rd molars 3) mand. 2nd premolar 4) mand. 3rd molars
2, 4, 1, 3
severely bent ROOT
the breakdown of enamel due to the acids produced as a by - product of dental plaque
____ is a deterrent to plaque formation due to 1. ____ 2. ______
enamel. 1. harness because it's difficult to penetrate 2. smoothness because it's difficult to attach to
softer than enamel
when decay reaches ___ it moves faster and causes what to form?
dentin. causes irregular (tertiary) dentin to form to protect pulp from bacterial invasion of caries.
apical abscess is caused from what
bacterial invasion in the pulp which results in tissue destruction thus causing the formation of an abscess
procedure for an apical abscess in perm and prim dentition
root canal for perm. pulpotomy for prim teeth
dentist may recommend these to protect pits and fissures from plaque formation?
used for treatment of caries, this restorative material has a base to protect the pulp
acrylic or metallic
used for treatment of caries, this restoration is used to restore extensive loss of tooth structure
cap or crown
poor dental restorations may result in
_____ is the breakdown of support structures (gingiva and bone) of the teeth generally caused by ______
periodontal disease. caused by the irritation of bacterial plaque
removal of deposits and root roughness in order to reduce plaque retention. (dental hygienist do this)
dental disease resulting from poor dentistry
type of iatrogenic dentistry that is a protective shelter for plaque accumulation- irritant
type of iatrogenic dentistry. Plaque adheres to rough surfaces resulting in early breakdown of material and recurrent caries
Iatrogenic dentistry. causes occlusal trauma, may crack (fracture) tooth, cause periapical abscess, and pain. Due to restoration over-filled or crown/ cap is too high
Iatrogenic dentistry. lack of frictional massage and causes inflammation
iatrogenic dentistry. gingival trauma, food debris pushed into gingival crevice. Goal in good dentistry is to recreate natural tooth surface
open contact, poor contact, or lack of marginal ridges may cause
____ is used to recreate contact are
pathology of undetermined cause
Idiopathic disease. (cause of disease = unknown)
___ is periodontal disease at an early age. ______ type of disease
juvenile periodontitis. idiopathic disease.
_____ is a periodontal disease in absence of known causes. a rare condition. Type of _____ disease
_____ is a advancement of periodontal disease in spite of efforts to arrest it. type of ______ disease.
refractive periodontitis. idiopathic
teeth will move within _____ hours if neighboring or opposing tooth is removed. term is____
24 hours. Tooth migration
Eruption past the occlusal plane if opposing tooth is reduced or removed without replacement. term?
supraeruption. type of tooth migration
For supraeruption (type of tooth migration) you should...
restore immediately or place a temporary restoration until permanent restoration is available
type of tooth migration. Causes forward movement of permanent teeth if mesial contact is lost.
procedure for mesial drift you should
restore immediately or place space maintainer or temporary restoration until permanent is available
type of tooth migration. occurs with premature contact or loss of occlusal contact because muscular balance is lost?
_____ is thick, keratinized (more collagen), dense collagen, designed to withstand trauma. Includes what?
masticatory mucosa. Includes free and attached gingiva, and the hard palate .
_____ is thin, freely movable (elastic fibers), tears easily, composed of loose connective tissue, muscle fibers, nonkeratinized (calloused), smooth, red in color (capillaries), apical to MGJ. Includes what?
lining mucosa. Included: soft palate, vestibule (alveolar and buccal mucosa), floor of mouth, inside of lips/cheeks
Space between free gingiva and tooth lined with nonkeratinized epithelium and many inflammatory cells. Bottom of sulcus should be within ___ - ___ mm from CEJ
gingival sulcus. .5 - 2 mm
edge next to tooth surface
margin of free gingiva (gingival margin)
between gingival margin and free gingival groove. It's Gingiva that forms the gingival sulcus, extends from the gingival margin to the base of the sulcus.
runs parallel to free gingiva to separate free and attached gingiva. Located at roughly same level as bottom of gingival sulcus
free gingival groove
_____ is tightly attached to underlying bone, lies b/t the free gingiva, and alveolar mucosa, extends from base of sulcus to the MGJ, premolars have the SMALLEST amount of it, it is also the gingiva that is _____. Does is range from patient to patient?
attached gingiva. stippled. yes
pocket > than 3mm would be
attachment of gingiva to tooth. located at _______
junctional epithelium/ epithelial attachment. base of gingival sulcus
creates stippling by interdigitation b/t the epithelium and the underlying connective tissue
Allows food to spill into the vestibule. vertical depression in tissue b/t tooth roots
will not grow back if removed. Free gingiva filling space b/t teeth
ranges from tooth to tooth, concave area at tip of interdental papilla, conforms to shape of the contact area, site of gingival inflammation, made up of ______ stratified squamous epithelium and lined with _____
COL. nonkeratinized. inflammatory cells.
___ support the tissue, connecting gingiva to the cementum of the tooth, made of collagen.
gingival fibers. 5 kinds
gingival fibers that curve toward the mucosa of the free gingiva and interlace with one another
pass directly across from the cementum to the gingiva. what type of fibers?
group 2. gingival fibers
gingival fibers that pass from the cementum over the alveolar crest and turns apically to the alveolar process. also called __
groupe 3. and dento pariostal (sp?)
travel across the interproximal space and attaches to the adjacent tooth? what type of fibers?
transseptal. Gingival fibers
surrounds the teeth, fiber to fiber, no bone or cementum attachment. What type of fibers?
circular. Gingival fibers
attachment apparatus b/t tooth and alveolus (socket)
periodontal ligaments suspends tooth by ____
collagen fibers named sharpey's fibers
the layers of bones that are added to the alveolus (socket) wall where the ____ attach is referred to as ____
sharpey's fibers. bundle bone
_____ has nutritive, adaptive, and sensory functions (for pain and pressure)
provides immediate attachment of the periodontal ligament
sharpey's fibers are named by
location and the direction at which they lie. 5 different type of them
sharpey's fibers are embedded in the bone at one end and the ____ on the other end.
extends from the cervical area of the tooth to the alveolar crest (crestal bone to the cementum on the root)... what type of fibers?
alveolar crest group. sharpey's fibers
runs horizontally from the cementum on the tooth to the alveolar bone. type of fibers?
horizontal group. sharpey's fibers
runs obliquely from the cementum to the bone, suspends tooth in socket and allow tooth to move. type of fibers?
Oblique. sharpey's fibers. Most numerous
sharpey's fibers or periodontal ligament that radiates apically from the tooth to the bone
located b/t roots of multi-rooted teeth. type of fibers?
interradicular group. sharpey's fibers.
created from cementoblasts, covers apical 1/3, cont. to lay down layers of cementum.
created from cementoblasts, covers middle 1/3, and cervical 1/3
bone of the upper or lower jaw that compromises the sockets for the teeth. composed of how many layers?
alveolar bone or alveolar process. 3 layers
layer of compact bone on the buccal or lingual surface? 1 of the layers that makes up what?
cortical bone. alveolar bone or alveolar process
filled with bone marrow also known as spongy or cancellous bone? 1 of the layers that makes up what?
has holes that allow passage of blood vessels, radiographically referred to as lamina dura, is the bone that forms the actual wall of the tooth socket. aka ?
cribiform plate. aka alveolar bone proper
A periodontal disease that is an increase in sulcular depth due to edema/ inflammation ? aka?
gingivitis. aka pseudo pocket
A periodontal disease formed when gingivitis progresses to involve the bone resulting in loss of bone level? aka?
periodontitis aka true pocket
osteoblast may be stimulated by tugging on sharpey's fibers which causes formation of layers of new bone.. this is referred to as
osteoclast may be stimulate by pressure which then results in the loss of bone. this is referred to as what?
relation of upper and lower jaws when mouth is closed in position of strongest muscle contraction, such as swallowing
relation of upper and lower TEETH when mouth is closed in natural occlusion. aka acquired occlusion, convenience occlusion, intercuspal position.
maxillary teeth should be facial to mandibular teeth, if mandibular teeth are facial to maxillary teeth this is termed
upper and lower anterior teeth do not meet when in centric occlusion
horizontal measurement of facial surface of lower central to lingual surface of upper incisors when in centric occlusion
vertical measurement of incisal edges of upper and lower centrals when in centric occlusion
if anterior teeth hit prematurely to the posteriors teeth in centric occlusion this is termed
natural occlusion when head is tipped forward, lower jaw moves forward
front to back (lateral view or side view) curve of occlusal plane
curve of spee
left to right (posterior view) curve of occlusal plane
curve of wilson
3D curve of occlusal plane is termed? what does it include?
sphere of monson. combo of curve of spee and curve of wilson
where are the roots mesial to the crowns? anterior aspect of posterior?
roots are distal to crown in what aspect? and what is the exception?
lateral. exception is max 3rd molars. they are almost straight up and down
in the posterior aspect the crown of which arch tip lingually while their roots are facial to the crown?
upper and lower jaws are about the same size and in normal relationship in what class type?
lower jaw is shorter than upper, meaning it is retruded, in what class type?
lower jaw is longer that upper meaning it is protruding, in what class type?
class 3. a lot of people get surgery to fix this
mesiobuccal cusp of perm 1st molar is in mesiobuccal groove of lower 1st molar is the description of what angles class type? and what is the other name for it?
class 1. aka neutroclusion
mesiobuccal groove of lower 1st molar behind (distal) to mesiobuccal cusp of upper 1st molar, is what class number? also called what?
class 2. aka distoclusion
mesiobuccal groove of lower 1st molar behind (distal) to mesiobuccal cusp of upper 1st molar with a anterior overjet, is what class number?
class 2 division 1
mesiobuccal groove of lower 1st molar behind (distal) to mesiobuccal cusp of upper 1st molar with upper central incisors retruded with crowns tipped lingually, and upper laterals rotated distally, is what class number?
class 2 division 2. in other words the linguals overlap the central incisors.
mesiobuccal groove of lower 1st molar is mesial or ahead of mesiobuccal cusp of upper 1st molar, is which class number? also called?
class 3. aka mesioclusion
In angles classification, if the 1st molars are missing which tooth can be used to in lieu to it, for permanent dentition and primary dentition?
Permanent = canine. Primary = 2nd molars
moving jaw side to side is termed
lateral excursion. once jaw goes into lateral excursion mastication begins
side to which mandible moves is also called
The other side from working side is
the nonworking side of dentures (no canine rise)
balancing side. Natural teeth do not need to balance. This replaces the "nonworking side" term
Last 2 teeth that should touch when in lateral excursion? also termed what?
canines. canine rise
when premolars also glide during lateral movement.. do dentures or natural teeth have more of this?
group function. dentures have more of a group function
angles class ____, curve of spee is almost _____, maxillary 3rd molar has only slight ____ inclination, and the tripod effect, which is called what? Are all examples of ideal occlusion.
1. flat. distal. term= stolarized molar (which stabilizes the mouth)
___ emits a pain response, provides nutrients and oxygen, removal of harmful products like carbon dioxide.
___ cavities are large in young individuals and become smaller and constricted with age due to ____
pulp. secondary dentin formation
calcification within pulp tissue? in perm teeth. considered when doing dental tx
pulp stones. considered when doing dental tx
centered in the crown and always a single cavity, also varies with the shape of the crown
located in the roof of the pulp chamber that correspond to the various cups of the crown. If the cusps are well developed then these will be and vise versa
pulp horns. varies from tooth to tooth
needs to be removed with a bur before a root canal procedure can be performed. Appears radiopaque (white) on an xray
opening at or near the apex of a tooth root through which the blood and nerve supply of the pulp enters the tooth
there may be one or more apical foramen also called?
accessory foramen or supplemental foramen. Need to be extra careful when doing a dental procedure like root canal when you have these accessory foramen
___, ____ roots with a ___ ____ are more likely to have multiple roots.
wide, flat, with a developmental groove
the size of the pulp cavity is influenced by ____, it's ______ and _____
age, functional activity, and history
pulp cavity can become partially or entirely obliterated by what?
secondary dentin due to trauma, malocclusion, thermal shock, abrasion .. etc
during development the diameter of the root canal is greatest here?
apical end. it's a funnel shaped opening, which becomes smaller with cont. root development
from these sides the pulp cavities are not visible radiographically
mesial and distal aspects
between 2 roots canals may be connected by a bar of dentin (obstruction) need to considered when doing dental procedures
teeth that often have 2 canals
mesialbuccal root of the maxillary molars and the mesial root of the mandibular molars
larger pulp chamber and canals, pulp horns more defined in ____
smaller pulp chamber and canals, pulp horns are less defined in _____
a dental specialty limited to the treatment of the pulp cavity
diagnosis of pulpal and periapical disease in 3 ways...
1. clinical signs 2. vitality testing 3. radiographic evidence
placed when the dentist is doing a preparation and the dentist goes too far and sees blood from the pulp
partial removal dental root
complete removal of the dental pulp
makes swallowing food and speech easier, help break down starches into smaller carb units and keep oral cavity from drying out
major salivary glands
stenson's duct, secretes serous- thin watery saliva, produces 25% of the saliva. Located on the side of the face, near ear duct, crosses the masseter muscle.
most serous & some mucous- thinker and stickier saliva. Produces 60-65% of the saliva. located below the posterior part of the body of the mandible and wraps around the mylohyoid muscle. duct= wharton's duct (sublingual caruncle)
submandibular (submaxillary paired gland)
mostly mucous & some serous. produces 15% of the saliva. duct= Bartholin's. located on the floor of the mouth anterior to the submandibular gland
sublingual (smallest gland) and paired
beneath the circumvallate papillae. secretion is?
Lingual/ von ebner. serous
all salivary glands are controlled by ...
parasympathetic nervous system of the autonomic nervous system. Main stimulation for salivation
ducts for minor salivary glands
blockage of the acini
movement of the tongue is done by what type of muscle
extrinsic (paired muscles)
retractor, from anterior surface of styloid process. Pulls the tongue backward and slightly upward. Nerve supply is __?
styloglossus muscle. 12th cranial nerve= hypoglossal. XII. extrinsic muscle
____ is the from upper border of the greater horn of the hyoid bone. lowers the tongue. what cranial nerve?
hyoglossus muscle. 12th cranial nerve= hypoglossal. XII. extrinsic muscle
____ is the runs from the anterior soft palate down and slightly forward into the lateral borders of the tongue. elevates the pst. part of the tongue and pills it lightly backward. what cranial nerve?
palatoglossus muscle. 10th (X) and 11th (XI). 10= vagus. its a extrinsic muscle
____ is the strongest of the extrinsic muscles. (depressor and protractor). From the genial (mental) tubercles (spines) on the midline inner surface of the mandible. Aids in protrusion, retrusion, or depression of the tongue. Cranial nerve is?
genioglossus muscle. 12th cranial nerve= hypoglossal XII
these type of muscles shape the tongue
intrinsic muscles. can be divided into longitudinal, transversal, and vertical muscles.
when contracted longitudinal muscles to what to the tongue
when contracted transverse muscles do what to the tongue
when contracted vertical muscles do what to the tongue
composed of papillary formations of epithelium and underlying connective tissue
dorsum of the tongue
large round elevated papillae. 10- 13 of them. each papilla is surrounded by a circular moat. Both of those walls contain the bitter taste buds.
Located beneath the circumvallate papillae
glands of von ebner
Most numerous of the lingual papillae used mostly for tactile sensitivity. Grayish in color
Red in color, they taste sweet, sour, and salty.
lateral surface of the tongue, not as developed in humans, the few taste buds they contain are for sour and acid.
portion of pharynx behind nose and communicating with it by the posterior nostril or choanae
lined with ciliated epithelium
directly posterior to the oral cavity
lined with stratified squamous epithelium- much elastic tissue. Located here are the palatine tonsils and waldeyers ring
lingual tonsils, palatine tonsils, and nasopharyngeal tonsils form
waldeyers ring. guards the throat
directly above the opening of the esophagus, behind the larynx. lined with stratified squamous epithelium
palatoglossal, palatopharyngeal, levator veli palatini, tensor veli palatini, are all muscles of what
muscle that when contracted it pulls the sides of the tongue up and back, pulls the soft palate down on the lateral edges, and narrows the space b/t the left and right anterior faucial pillars and the nerve supply is ____ and ____ cranial nerves
palatoglossal muscle. X 1Oth and XI 11th cranial nerves.
forms the posterior faucial pillar. When consticted it narrows the posterior faucial pillar and elevates the pharynx and the larynx. Nerve supply is ___ and ____ cranial nerve
palatopharyngeal muscle. 10th X and 11th XI
elevates the posterior end of the soft palate. When contracted it pulls the posterior end of the soft palate up and back to contact the posterior pharyngeal (throat) wall. Also helps auditory canal if its closed. Nerve supply is ____ and ____
levator veli palatini. 10th X and 11th XI cranial nerves
When contracted, slightly tenses the anterior portion of the soft palate. Nerve supple is ___ and ____
tensor veli palatini. 5th V cranial nerve = trigeminal
2 groups of pharyngeal muscles
pharyngeal constrictors and pharyngeal dilators and elevators
all pharyngeal constrictors use what 2 cranial nerves
10th and 11th. X & XI
when contracts it constricts the lower end of the pharynx and forces food into the esophagus
inferior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
when contracts it also constricts the pharyngeal opening and forces food down toward the esophagus. from upper part of the hyoid bone and stylohyoid ligament
middle pharyngeal constrictor muscle
when contracts it constricts the upper part of the pharynx and is able to force the contents of the pharynx downward.
superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle
elevates the pharynx (necessary in order to receive the food that is being swallowed) nerve supply is 10th and 11th.
palatopharyngeal muscle (elevator muscle)
when contracts it causes dilation and elevation of the pharynx (its primary dilator of the pharynx) nerve supply is ___ cranial nerve
stylopharyngeal muscle. 9th IX. only muscle of the pharynx that does not have 10th and 11th cranial nerve
when contracts it lifts the pharyngeal wall in the act of swallowing. nerve supply is 10th and 11th. originates from end up auditory tube
a pin point depression where 2 or more developmental grooves cross
any other grooves
horizontal lines on anterior teeth
lingual lobe of an anterior tooth
developmental center of major parts of tooth
major pointed or rounded portion of a posterior tooth
minor cusp, may be found on anterior or posterior teeth
wide shallow depression on tooth named by location
rounded protuberances on incisal edge of newly erupted incisors they will wear away if in occlusion
found on edges of the tooth surface
marginal ridges named by location
ridge from cusp tip to tooth center
2 triangular ridges
only found on maxillary molars prim and perm 1st and 2nd EXCEPT prim 1st
oblique ridge. Runs mesiolingual to distalbuccal
long deep v shaped valley on tooth. development depression at its bottom
where 2 adjacent teeth touch. widest part of each tooth
where opposing teeth tough
from occlusal aspect anteriors are ___ except for ___
centered. canine which is in the middle
from occlusal the posteriors are centered___
from facial the anteriors are centered __
incisal 3rd to junction of middle 3rd
from facial the posteriors are centered
junction of middle 3rd to middle 3rd
interproximal space houses
interdental papilla. its a triangular space
spillways for food around contact area
largest embrasure is
embrasure that is in an unhealthy mouth
facial contours are located where for anteriors and posteriors
cervical 3rd of crown
lingual contours are located where for anteriors and posteriors
anterior= cervical 3rd and post= middle 3rd
used for anchorage and boney support
CEJ is greater here
anterior teeth. need more anchorage
crest of curvature is
widest part of the tooth