child developement 2

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Which substance is secreted into the mother's milk in the first day or two after childbirth?

colostrum

Among the following, the skill that is generally the first to develop is:

walking well alone

A well-nourished newborn gains weight:

to triple its birth weight by age 1 year.

The slowest-to-mature brain lobe is the:

Frontal cortex.

Research on SIDS has shown that babies should be:

put to sleep on their backs.

When infants turn their heads and suck in response to a touch on the cheek, that is the:

rooting reflex.

Children reach half their adult height by age:

2 years.

It is important to know the sequence of expected motor milestones because:

reaching motor milestones give an indication of healthy brain development.

Which reflex allows newborns to grip so tightly that they can carry their weight?

grasping reflex

The reason 6-year-olds are ready to start school is that:

they can scan a page of print.
B. they can remember important facts and instructions for more than a few seconds.
C. they can control their emotions.

The 2-year-old human brain weighs ______ percent of the adult brain.

75

The differentiation and specialization of the functioning of the two halves of the brain is called:

lateralization.

The best example of a fine motor skill in this list is:

using scissors to cut paper.

Gross motor skills such a riding a tricycle are acquired:

through a combination of brain maturation and practice.

Writing your name is a ______, whereas kicking a ball is a(n) ______.

fine motor skill; gross motor skill

Impulsiveness and perseveration are the same in that they both represent:

an underdeveloped prefrontal cortex.

Developing selective attention is:

a good thing. It helps a child focus on the most important element of a situation.

Among Piaget's major contributions to understanding development was that:

infants learn about the world using their senses and motor skills.

The ability to remember and imitate other's behavior is referred to as:

deferred imitation

Using mental combinations to anticipate and solve simple problems takes place in Piaget's Sensorimotor:

stage 6

Regarding the Visual Cliff experiment, even 3-month-olds can notice the difference between a solid surface and an apparent cliff. However, one affordance of the cliff, falling, is realized only after:

nfants have been crawling.

A child is likely to go through a vocabulary spurt at the age of

18 months.

A good play reinforcer of object permanence would be:

peek-a-boo.

New adaptation and anticipation are most likely to be found in Piaget's:

stage 4

After noticing that his 4-year-old brother was having difficulty building a Lego car, Jake helped him with the task by showing him how to do it and involving him in practice. Vygotsky might refer to this as an example of:

guided participation.

Centration and preoperational thought are important terms offered by:

Piaget.

That other people can have thoughts and ideas unlike one's own is a good definition of:

theory of mind.

Overregulation shows a child's understanding of:

grammar.

Piaget's concept that quantity, amount, or number is the same no matter what the configuration is called:

conservation

_________ built on Piaget's theories and research to further explain moral development.

Kohlberg

The memory system that retains an impression of stimulus on a sensory organ is called:

the sensory register.

When children learn about a particular topic, it is easier to master new learning in that area. This occurs because of the child's ____________.

knowledge base

The __________ store is limited in adults (7+/-2) and is even more limited in children.

working memory

The capacity of the _______ is virtually limitless.

long-term memory

According to Piaget, the stage of thinking characteristic of middle childhood is:

information

I know that I study best by re-writing my notes. The ability to think about my own thinking is defined as:

metacognition.

One of Vygotsky's most famous concepts was the zone of proximal development, which asserts that:

child can master some tasks with the help of others.

child can master some tasks with the help of others.

intuitive; logical

myelination

the process by which axons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses from neuron to neuron

automatization

a process in schich repetition of a sequence of thoughts and actions makes the sequence of thoughts and actions makes the sequence routine, so that it no longer requires conscious thought

gross motor skills

Skills that involve the large muscles of the body, such as those of the legs, arms and torso and the ability to make large movements, such as jumping and running

fine motor skills

Skills that involve the smaller muscles of the body, such as those in the fingers where small, precise movements, such as using scissors or writing, are required

lateralization

Literally, sidedness. The specialization in certain functions by each side of the brain, with one side dominant for each activity. The left side of the brain controls the right side of the body, and vice versa

growth

cepharcausdal: head down
Priximodistal: center out

object permanence

recognition that things continue to exist even though hidden from sight; infants generally gain this after 3 to 7 months of age

centration

a preoperational thought pattern involving the inability to take into account more than one factor at a time ex:when child is thirsty, they will want to drink out of a big glass because they think it hols more juice

holophrase

a single word that is used to express a complete, meaningful thought

schema

a concept or framework that organizes and interprets information

equilibrium

a sensory system located in structures of the inner ear that registers the orientation of the head

accommodation

in the theories of Jean Piaget: the modification of internal representations in order to accommodate a changing knowledge of reality

assimilation

in the theories of Jean Piaget: the application of a general schema to a particular instance

scaffolding

Vygotsky's idea that learners should be given only just enough help so that they can reach the next level

guided participation

the process by which people learn from others who guide their experiences and explorations

zone of proximal developement

Vgotsky said children rach developmental readiness at diff reates for learning. the phase at which a child can benefit from instruction is called ____

theory of mind

people's ideas about their own and others' mental states -- about their feelings, perceptions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict

Piaget stage 1

Reflexes

P stage 2

First aquired adaptation
Actions become more deliberate

P stage 3

Making interesting events last

P stage 4

Goal directed behavior object permanence

Stage 5

New means through active experimentation little scientists

Stage 6

Mental combinations deferred imitation

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