The functional units of the kidney
Types of urine specimens
Random, first morning, clean-catch midstream, timed, and 24-hour.
Random urine specimen
The most common type of sample, it is a single urine specimen taken at any time of day.
First morning urine specimen
Collected after a night's sleep, contains greater concentrations of substances.
Clean catch midstream urine specimen
May be collected and submitted for culturing to identify the number and types of pathogens present.
Timed urine specimen
Measures a patient's urinary output or to analyze substances.
24-hour urine specimen
Is used to complete a quantitative and qualitative analysis of one or more substances, such as sodium, chloride, and calcium.
The procedure during which the catheter is inserted.
A sterile plastic tube inserted to provide urinary drainage.
Indwelling urethral (Foley) catheter
Designed to stay in place within the bladder.
Excessive nighttime urination
The evaluation of urine by various types of testing methods to obtain information about body health and disease.
Normal urine ranges from pale yellow to dark amber. Depends on food or fluid intake, meds, and waste products.
Urine is typically clear, although cloudy urine does not always indicate an abnormal condition.
Normal adult urine volume is 600 to 1800 ml per 24 hours ( average of 1250 ml).
Insufficient production ( or volume) of urine, occurs in such conditions as dehydration, decreased fluid intake, shock, and renal disease.
Bacteria in the specimen decompose the urea which causes an odor similar to ammonia.
Urine specific gravity
Is a measure of the concentration or amount of substances dissolved in urine.
A measure of the degree of acidity or alkalinity of the urine. Normal pH ranges from 5.0 to 8.0, the average urine pH is 6.0 which is slightly acidic.
The presence of blood in urine.
Bilirubin and Urobilinogen
When hemoglobin breaks down, it converts into conjugated bilirubin in the liver and then to urobilinogen in the intestines.
Presence of the bile pigment bilirubin in the urine, first signs of liver disease or conditions that involve the liver.