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Chapters 7 & 9

d

The predictability of an association between a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) facilitates an organism's ability to expect or anticipate the occurrence of the US. This fact is most likely to be highlighted by a _____________ perspective.
A. neuroscience
B. behaviorist
C. Pavlovian
D. cognitive

d

Walter was bitten by a dog when he was five-years-old. To this day, he will not pet dogs; however, he will pet cats. This reaction best illustrates:
A. generalization.
B. an unconditioned response (UR).
C. operant conditioning.
D. discrimination

a

Findings from Garcia's research on taste aversion in rats indicate that:
A. rats are more likely to develop aversions to taste than they are to sights or sounds.
B. the unconditioned stimulus (US) MUST immediately follow the conditioned stimulus (CS).
C. rats are more likely to develop aversions sights or sounds than they are to taste.
D. organisms do NOT have biological predispositions when learning associations.

d

Although Skinner and other behaviorists did not think that it was necessary to refer to thoughts or expectations when explaining human learning, findings from experiments with rats suggest otherwise. Which of the following findings suggests that cognitive processes are involved in operant learning:
A. Children learn from observing their parents, and exhibit the learning immediately.
B. Rats do NOT seem to develop a cognitive map of mazes.
C. Learning is merely the association of a response with a consequence.
D. Rats appear to experience latent learning while exploring mazes.

b

During a typical morning, Colin will check the clock more frequently as the time for his regularly scheduled lunch break approaches. In this case, Colin's clock checking behavior is reinforced on a ________ schedule.
A. fixed-ratio
B. fixed-interval
C. variable-ratio
D. variable-interval

c

Jack finds it extremely difficult to pull himself away from the blackjack table. He keeps thinking he will break even as the next hand will be his winning one. This is a ________ schedule.
A. fixed-ratio
B. fixed-interval
C. variable-ratio
D. variable-interval

c

Which pioneering learning researcher highlighted the antisocial effects of aggressive models on children's behavior?
A. Skinner
B. Pavlov
C. Bandura
D. Watson

d

If a child is watching a favorite sibling getting scolded for misbehavior, which type of neuron is likely to be activated in an empathetic response to this observation?
A. interneuron
B. motor neuron
C. sensory neuron
D. mirror neuron

b

Tina is a seven-year-old girl who frequently witnesses her father's anger and physically abusive acts on her mother. In her room she is playing with her toys and begins to yell at them and hit them for "being so stupid and not having dinner ready." Her behavior is a clear example of:
A. classical learning.
B. observational learning.
C. reinforced learning.
D. observational conditioning.

c

John B. Watson believed that psychology should be the science of:
A. genetic predispositions.
B. cognitive processes.
C. observable behavior.
D. emotional outcomes.

b

In classical conditioning, this is the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
A. neutral stimulus
B. unconditioned response (UR)
C. conditioned/neutral stimulus (CS)
D. conditioned response (CR)

a

All of the following are Pavlov's major contributions to the field of psychology EXCEPT:
A. his methods demonstrated the importance of subjective judgments.
B. principles of learning apply across species.
C. the discipline of psychology could be based on objective laboratory methods.
D. significant psychological phenomena can be studied objectively.

d

Secondary reinforcers are powerful tools for shaping behavior because they have become associated with primary reinforcers. Which of the following is NOT a secondary reinforcer?
A. grades
B. praise
C. money
D. food

d

Michael is busy with his work project that he brought home. His son wants him to put a movie in the DVD player. Michael tells him to wait 10 minutes; however, his son whines and complains so much that Michael decides to put the movie in right now. This best illustrates the value of:
A. secondary reinforcement.
B. positive reinforcement.
C. erratic behavior.
D. negative reinforcement.

b

According to operant conditioning principles, which of the following would NOT be recommended when dealing with a young girl who is resistant to going to school every morning?
A. Parents should ignore complaints or whining about school.
B. Parents should express their anger by yelling at the girl.
C. If the girl refuses to get in the car, parents should explain why this is a problem and use time-outs.
D. Parents should reward the girl when she cooperates by getting into the car in the morning.

a

Mirror neurons are found in the brain's ______________ and are believed to be the neural basis for:
A. frontal lobe; observational learning.
B. frontal lobe; classical conditioning.
C. temporal lobe; observational learning.
D. temporal lobe; operant conditioning.

d

An empathic husband who observes his wife in pain will exhibit some of the same brain activity she is showing. This best illustrates the functioning of:
A. cognitive maps.
B. spontaneous recovery.
C. the law of effect.
D. mirror neurons.

a

In Bandura's experiment, compared to children not exposed to the adult model, those who observed the model's aggressive outburst were ________________ to lash out at the doll.
A. much more likely
B. equally
C. unable
D. much less likely

b

Long after her conditioned fear of dogs had been extinguished, Marcy experienced an unexpected surge of nervousness when she first met her cousin's new cocker spaniel. Her unexpected nervousness best illustrates:
A. latent learning.
B. spontaneous recovery.
C. shaping.
D. delayed reinforcement.

a

Most learning involves the process of association. With classical conditioning, an organism comes to associate:
A. two stimuli.
B. something observed and its consequences.
C. a neutral stimulus and a reward.
D. a response and its consequences.

b

During a typical morning, Colin will check the clock more frequently as the time for his regularly scheduled lunch break approaches. In this case, Colin's clock checking behavior is reinforced on a ________ schedule.
A. variable-interval
B. fixed-interval
C. variable-ratio
D. fixed-ratio

a

_______________________ involves any stimulus that, when removed after a response, strengthens the response.
A. Negative reinforcement
B. Moderate reinforcement
C. Neutral reinforcement
D. Positive reinforcement

d

Classical conditioning focuses on ________________ behavior, whereas operant conditioning focuses on ________________ behavior.
A. controllable; uncontrollable
B. voluntary; involuntary
C. hidden; observable
D. respondent; operant

a

A guest will be spending time in your classroom. To make sure your students imitate this person's prosocial behaviors, you should pick a guest who the children think:
A. is similar to them.
B. is kind of average but works hard.
C. is boring.
D. is different from them.

b

Which pioneering learning researcher highlighted the antisocial effects of aggressive models on children's behavior?
A. Pavlov
B. Bandura
C. Watson
D. Skinner

c

When a four-year-old girl suddenly picks up her ironing board and plays it like it is an electric guitar, it is likely that she has seen someone playing a real electric guitar in the same manner. Thus she has learned via:
A. classical conditioning.
B. operant conditioning.
C. observation.
D. neural networks.

b

Henry, a heavy smoker, is interested in quitting. Given what you know about the cognitive processes involved in classical conditioning, what is the most likely reason he still has trouble quitting after he is treated with a drug that induces nausea when he smokes a cigarette?
A. Reinforcement does not work as well as punishment.
B. He realizes his nausea is due to the drug, not simply the cigarette.
C. The nausea does NOT immediately follow his inhalation of the smoke.
D. He is afraid of the side effects of the drug.

b

Findings from Garcia's research on taste aversion in rats indicate that:
A. organisms do NOT have biological predispositions when learning associations.
B. rats are more likely to develop aversions to taste than they are to sights or sounds.
C. rats are more likely to develop aversions sights or sounds than they are to taste.
D. the unconditioned stimulus (US) MUST immediately follow the conditioned stimulus (CS).

d

You repeatedly hear a tone just before having a puff of air directed into your eye. Blinking in response to a tone presented without a puff of air is a(n):
A. conditioned stimulus (CS).
B. unconditioned response (UR).
C. unconditioned stimulus (US).
D. conditioned response (CR).

a

Michael is busy with his work project that he brought home. His son wants him to put a movie in the DVD player. Michael tells him to wait 10 minutes; however, his son whines and complains so much that Michael decides to put the movie in right now. This best illustrates the value of:
A. negative reinforcement.
B. secondary reinforcement.
C. erratic behavior.
D. positive reinforcement.

a

Critics of B. F. Skinner were concerned that:
A. he relied too heavily on animals to explain general learning principles.
B. his research methods were flawed.
C. he ignored the influence of stimulus-response associations.
D. he dehumanized people because he ignored the existence of personal freedom and dignity.

d

Critics of B. F. Skinner were concerned that:
A. he relied too heavily on animals to explain general learning principles.
B. his research methods were flawed.
C. he ignored the influence of stimulus-response associations.
D. he dehumanized people because he ignored the existence of personal freedom and dignity.

d

The majority of correlational studies that have examined television violence and aggressive behavior suggest that the more hours children spend watching violent television shows, the more likely they are to exhibit aggressive behaviors. What is the major problem with these findings?
A. Girls were not included in these studies.
B. They do not apply to elementary school-aged children.
C. The studies don't take operant conditioning into account.
D. Correlation does not prove causation.

c

One chimpanzee watches a second chimp solve a puzzle for a food reward. The first chimp then imitates how the second chimp solved the puzzle. This best illustrates:
A. spontaneous recovery.
B. operant conditioning.
C. observational learning.
D. respondent behavior.

c

Johnny is "hammering" the nail in with his toy hammer as his father is hammering the deck boards. His behavior is a clear example of:
A. reinforced learning.
B. observational conditioning.
C. modeling.
D. classical learning.

a

In classical conditioning, this is the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salivation when food is in the mouth.
A. unconditioned response (UR)
B. conditioned response (CR)
C. neutral stimulus
D. conditioned/neutral stimulus (CS)

d

Jane had leukemia as a child and had to undergo numerous bouts of chemotherapy. She had associated the waiting room with nausea. Now 35 years old, she had to take her mother to the same hospital for breast cancer treatment. She became nauseous while in the waiting room with her mother. Her nausea best illustrates:
A. latent learning.
B. shaping.
C. delayed reinforcement.
D. spontaneous recovery.

c

Watson and Rayner taught "Little Albert" to fear white rats by:
A. negatively reinforcing Albert when he approached a rat.
B. showing Albert a white rat and then punishing him when he touched it.
C. repeatedly pairing a loud noise with the presentation of a white rat.
D. showing Albert movies of children being bitten by rats.

a

_______________________ involves any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.
A. Positive reinforcement
B. Neutral reinforcement
C. Negative reinforcement
D. Moderate reinforcement

d

Matt regularly buckles his seatbelt simply because it turns off the car's irritating warning buzzer. This best illustrates the value of:
A. spontaneous recovery.
B. erratic behavior.
C. secondary reinforcement.
D. negative reinforcement.

a

At work, there is a vending machine that gives extra candy bars when you select either the "A" or "B" choices. You continue to frequent this machine regularly. This best illustrates:
A. operant conditioning.
B. respondent behavior.
C. latent learning.
D. spontaneous recovery.

c

In Bandura's experiment, compared to children not exposed to the adult model, those who observed the model's aggressive outburst were ________________ to lash out at the doll.
A. unable
B. much less likely
C. much more likely
D. equally

d

You are conducting a research study with 24 men on the effects of movies and sexual violence. You will have the men watch three violent films over the next two days and then assess their attitudes toward women and violent sexual acts by reading actual cases of rape victims. You find that:
A. the men became more empathic toward the rape victims.
B. the men became bothered by the violent acts.
C. the men expressed more sympathy for the rape victims.
D. the men expressed less sympathy for the rape victims.

b

It is not unreasonable to predict that when today's U.S. teenagers are in their mid-70s, they will have watched TV for the equivalent of about _______ years.
A. 6
B. 9
C. 15
D. 3

learning

a relatively permanent change in an organism's behavior due to experience

associative learning

learning that certain events occur together. The events may be two stimuli (as in classical conditioning) or a response and its consequences (as in operant conditioning)

classical conditioning

a type of learning in which one learns to link two or more stimuli and anticipate events

behaviorism

the view that psychology 1) should be an objective science that 2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2).

operant conditioning

a type of learning in which one learns to associate a response (our behavior) and its consequence and thus to repeat acts followed by good results and avoid acts followed by bad results.

NS neutral stimulus

in classical conditioning, a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning.

UR unconditioned response

in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US) such as salivation when food is in the mouth.

US unconditioned stimulus

in classical conditioning, a stimulus that unconditionally-- naturally and automatically -- triggers a response.

CR conditioned response

in classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus (CS)

CS conditioned stimulus

in classical conditioning, a previously neutral stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus (US) comes to trigger a conditioned response.

acquisition

in classical conditioning, the initial stage, when one links a neutral stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus begins triggering the conditioned response.

higher-order conditioning

a procedure in which the conditioned stimulus in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus. For example, an animal that has learned that a tone predicts food might then learn that a light predicts the tone and begin responding to the light tone alone.

higher-order conditioning

also called second-order conditioning

extinction

the diminishing of a conditioned response; occurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus (US) does not follow a conditioned stimulus (CS);

extinction

occurs in operant conditioning when a response is no longer reinforced.

acquisition

In operant conditioning, the strengthening of a reinforced response.

spontaneous recovery

the reappearance, after a pause, of an extinguished conditioned response.

generalization

the tendency, once a response has been conditioned, for a stimuli similar to the conditioned stimulus to elicit similar responses.

discrimination

in classical conditioning, the learned ability to distinguish between a conditioned stimulus and stimuli that do not signal an unconditioned stimulus.

John Watson

_____________ believed that human emotions and behaviors, though biologically influenced, are mainly a bundle of conditioned responses.

Watson and Rayner

worked with an 11 month old named Albert and conditioned him to fear rats

Pavlov

believed that classical conditioning applies to human health and well-being.

b

Dogs can learn to respond (by salivating, for example) to one kind of stimulus (a circle, for example) and not to another (a square). This process is an example of
a. generalization
b. discrimination
c. acquisition
d. spontaneous recovery

d

Early behaviorists believed that for conditioning to occur, the unconditioned stimulus (US) must immediately follow the neutral stimulus (NS). _____________ demonstrated this was not always so.
a. The Little Albert experiment
b. Pavlov's experiments with dogs
c. Watson's behaviorism theory
d. Garcia and Koelling's taste-aversion studies

respondent behavior

behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus.

operant conditioning

a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher.

operant behavior

behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences

law of effect

Thorndike's principle that behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely

operant chamber

in operant conditioning research, a chamber (also known as a Skinner box) containing a bar or key that an animal can manipulate to obtain a food or water reinforcer; attached devices record the animal's rate of bar pressing or key pecking.

shaping

an operant conditioning procedure in which reinforcers guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior.

reinforcer

in operant conditioning, any event that strengthens the behavior it follows

positive reinforcement

increasing behaviors by presenting positive stimuli, such as food. A positive reinforcer is any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.

positive reinforcer

any stimulus that, when presented after a response, strengthens the response.

negative reinforcement

increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli. A negative reinforcer is any stimulus, that when removed after a response, strengthens the response. (NOT punishment)

negative reinforcer

any stimulus, that when removed after a response, strengthens the response.

primary reinforcer

an innately reinforcing stimulus, such as one that satisfies a biological need.

conditioned reinforcer

a stimulus that gains its reinforcing power through its association with a primary reinforcer

conditioned reinforcer

also known as a secondary reinforcer

continuous reinforcement

reinforcing the desired response every time it occurs

partial intermittent reinforcement

reinforcing a response only part of the time; results in slower acquisition of a response but much greater resistance to extinction than does continuous reinforcement

fixed ratio schedule

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses.

variable-ratio schedule

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.

fixed interval schedule

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.

variable interval schedule

in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals.

BF Skinner

believed that external influences (not internal thoughts and feelings) shape behavior.

d

Salivating in response to a tone paired with food is a (an) ___________; pressing a bar to obtain food is a (an) ___________
a. primary reinforcer; conditioned reinforcer
b. conditioned reinforcer; primary reinforcer
c. operant behavior; respondent behavior
d. respondent behavior; operant behavior

c

Thorndike's law of effect became the basis for operant conditioning and the "behavioral technology" developed by
a. Ivan Pavlov
b. John Garcia
c. B.F. Skinner
d. John B. Watson

b

The partial reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable times is a
a. fixed interval schedule
b. variable interval schedule
c. fixed ratio schedule
d. variable ratio schedule

c

A medieval proverb notes that "a burnt child dreads the fire." In operant conditioning, the burning would be an example of a
a. primary reinforcer
b. negative reinforcer
c. punisher
d. positive reinforcer

observational learning

learning by observing others

modeling

the process of observing and imitating a specific behavior.

mirror neurons

frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another doing so.

mirror neurons

The brain's mirror of another's action that may enable imitation and empathy.

prosocial behavior

positive, constructive, helpful behavior. The opposite of antisocial behavior.

d

In the example of classical conditioning in which the child feared the doctor, the CS was:
A. fear.
B. a painful injection.
C. a severe illness.
D. the presence of the doctor.

d

In the example of the child fearing the doctor, the child's fear of a scientist in a white lab coat illustrates the process of:
A. shaping.
B. spontaneous recovery.
C. latent learning.
D. generalization.
E. secondary reinforcement.

c

A single acquisition trial may be sufficient for classical conditioning when the:
A. CS is a neutral stimulus.
B. UCS is presented before the CS.
C. UCS is a very powerful stimulus.
D. UCR quickly follows the UCS.

d

In the experiment in which you were to condition a subject to blink her eye whenever she heard a certain tone, the UCS was a(n):
A. bright light.
B. eye blink.
C. tone.
D. puff of air.

a

In the experiment in which you were to condition a subject to blink her eye whenever she heard a certain tone, an eye blink was most likely to be scored as a ________ when it preceded the ________.
A. CR; UCS
B. CR; CS
C. UCR; UCS
D. UCR; CS

c

In this PsychSim activity, you were asked to consider whether finding your way from one location to another is facilitated by ________ or by ________.
A. classical conditioning; operant conditioning
B. generalization; discrimination
C. chained associations; cognitive maps
D. continuous reinforcement; partial reinforcement
E. reinforcement; punishment

d

If you learn the way from home to school as a specific sequence of right and left turns, you have learned by means of:
A. classical conditioning.
B. a cognitive map.
C. generalization.
D. chained associations.
E. continuous reinforcement.

b

Travelers whose familiar route to a destination is blocked are often able to reach their destination quickly and easily by taking an unusual sequence of turns down other streets. This suggests that people often find their way by means of:
A. generalization.
B. cognitive maps.
C. partial reinforcement.
D. chained associations.
E. negative reinforcement.

a

In this PsychSim activity, you were asked to find your way through the different mazes. The reinforcer for reaching the goal box in each case was:
A. cheese.
B. bread.
C. cake.
D. water.
E. meat.

c

In the maze-learning task, most people make ________ turns on their ________ run.
A. more left-hand; second
B. more right-hand; second
C. fewer wrong; second
D. fewer wrong; first

b

If we stop nagging a young boy as soon as he makes his bed, we are giving him ________ reinforcement for making his bed.
A. intermittent
B. negative
C. spontaneous
D. unconditional
E. variable

c

Continuous reinforcement produces ________ learning and ________ extinction.
A. fast; slow
B. slow; fast
C. fast; fast
D. slow; slow

d

In the experiment in which you reinforced various rats for pressing a bar, the reinforcement was:
A. negative.
B. secondary.
C. delayed.
D. intermittent.
E. spontaneous.

a

The highest rates of responding occurred when rats reinforced for pressing a bar were placed on ________ and ________ schedules of reinforcement.
A. fixed-ratio; variable-ratio
B. fixed-ratio; fixed-interval
C. variable-ratio; variable-interval
D. variable-interval; fixed-interval

d

Which schedule of reinforcement produces the greatest resistance to extinction?
A. fixed ratio
B. fixed interval
C. variable ratio
D. variable interval

a

Albert Bandura's classic "Bobo doll" experiments demonstrated the importance of _______ in the shaping of young children's behavior through ________ learning.
A. modeling; observational
B. conditioning; classical
C. reinforcement; behavioral
D. cognition; unconditioned

c

The children in the control group in the original Bobo doll experiment:
A. acted exactly the same way as the children in the experimental group.
B. did not have their toys taken away from them.
C. did not observe an aggressive model attacking the Bobo doll.
D. invented new ways of being aggressive toward the Bobo doll.

d

After watching the model interact with the Bobo doll, the children in the experimental group:
A. hugged and kissed the Bobo doll.
B. cried in fear when they saw the Bobo doll.
C. didn't know what to do with the Bobo doll.
D. attacked the Bobo doll.

c

Bandura concluded that children learn two things from observing an aggressive model-how to perform the specific aggressive acts and:
A. when to stop aggressing.
B. aggression is wrong.
C. aggression can be fun.
D. aggression cannot be controlled.

d

Children can learn to be kind and helpful through observing prosocial behavior, an important aspect of:
A. generalization.
B. respondent behavior.
C. spontaneous recovery.
D. socialization.

c

In humans and monkeys, the premotor cortex is involved in:
A. coordinating movements.
B. returning muscles to the resting state after movement.
C. planning movements.
D. causing endorphins to be released in response to pain.

c

Mirror neurons that are found in the premotor cortex of monkeys:
A. are exactly the same as certain neurons found in the motor cortex.
B. fire excitedly after every movement.
C. fire excitedly when the monkey watches a movement just as they did when the monkey performed the same movement.
D. enable the monkey to perform movements in reverse order.

c

In humans, mirror neurons might enable:
A. observational learning.
B. homeostasis.
C. discovery of repressed memories.
D. heightened physical sensation.

d

The area in the human brain that corresponds to the F5 area in the monkey's brain is:
A. the occipital lobe.
B. Wernicke's area.
C. the amygdala.
D. Broca's area.

d

Evolutionary psychologists believe mirror neurons may have played an important role in:
A. sexual selection.
B. genetic diversity.
C. sensory adaptation.
D. the evolution of language.

d

Four-month-old, Shayna, is starting to say things like "ah-goo" and "da-da-da-da." Shayna is in the:
A. two-word stage.
B. one-word stage.
C. stage of telegraphic speech.
D. babbling stage.

d

Linguistic determinism suggests that ___________ think differently when they are speaking:
A. people; to their animals.
B. children; out loud.
C. adults and children; to each other.
D. bilingual people; in one of their two languages.

d

Dierdri is a figure skater preparing for the upcoming national championships. Her coach has suggested she practice mentally for the competition. Which of the following would you recommend she imagine?
A. She should imagine calling her mother after the competition and telling her the good news.
B. She should imagine herself bending down to have the medal placed around her neck.
C. She should imagine the crowd cheering as she skates onto the ice and bows.
D. She should imagine her jumps and spins while listening to her skating music.

b

Most of your instructors use the generic pronoun "he" when referring to psychologists and the generic pronoun "she" when referring to administrative assistants. In your mind, you automatically think of psychologists as men and administrative assistants as women. Why?
A. Linguistic determinism predicts that your thinking shapes your language.
B. Linguistic determinism predicts that the language shapes your thinking.
C. It is due to availability statistics.
D. Classical conditioning causes you to pair the gender with the occupation.

d

Operant conditioning is to Skinner, as language acquisition device is to:
A. Whorf.
B. Tversky.
C. Bortfield.
D. Chomsky.

a

Chinese-born Min has lived in the U.S. since she the age of 7. Min reports that when she is speaking Chinese to her family and friends, she thinks about things differently than when she is speaking English. This is a good illustration of:
A. linguistic determinism.
B. functional fixedness.
C. the representativeness heuristic.
D. telegraphic speech.

b

The _____________ is the most widely used intelligence test for adults. It includes subtests for verbal comprehension and processing speed.
A. Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
B. Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS)
C. U.S. Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT)
D. Binet's Intelligence Test (BIT)

a

At about _______ months of age, the two-word stage of language development typically begins.
A. 24
B. 10
C. 6
D. 36

b

At the zoo, a chimpanzee has figured out how to use the right kind of stones to crack open the nuts thrown to him by spectators. His problem solving has been shaped by:
A. functional fixedness.
B. reinforcement.
C. observation.
D. punishment.

b

Dr. Zane has been studying monkeys' ability to classify photographs of cats and dogs. After the monkeys became competent at this classifying task, Dr. Zane found that certain of their frontal lobe neurons fired in response to new "catlike" or "doglike" images. This suggests that the monkeys:
A. are not prone to functional fixedness.
B. can form concepts.
C. are smarter than 3-year-old children.
D. have the ability to form syntax.

b

Japanese-born Makita moved to Canada when she was 11 years old. Half her classes are taught in English and half in Japanese. Research has shown that non-English speaking children taught in bilingual programs tend to ________________ than if they had gone to an English-only school.
A. have LOWER levels of creativity and HIGHER levels of academic achievement
B. have HIGHER levels of creativity and academic achievement
C. have LOWER levels of creativity and academic achievement
D. have HIGHER levels of creativity and LOWER levels of academic achievement

c

To expand language is to expand the ability to:
A. reflect.
B. misunderstand.
C. think.
D. act.

c

___________ refers to the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language.
A. Associative learning
B. Semantics
C. Syntax
D. Grammar

b

Shelia says things like "me go", "mama bye", and "dada go." She is in the:
A. babbling stage.
B. two-word stage.
C. stage of telegraphic speech.
D. one-word stage.

c

___________________ refers to children's ability to learn to inhibit one language while using their other language.
A. Multilingual advantage
B. Unilingual advantage
C. Bilingual advantage
D. Trilingual advantage

b

Gary says things like "doggy", "mama", and "dada." He is in the:
A. babbling stage.
B. one-word stage.
C. stage of telegraphic speech.
D. two-word stage.

a

According to __________, language development can be explained using the principles of learning, such as association and reinforcement.
A. Skinner
B. Pinker
C. Chomsky
D. Watson

c

Bilingual children learn to inhibit one language while using their other language. Thus, if asked to say whether a sentence is grammatically correct ("Why is the cat barking so loudly?"), bilingual children can focus more quickly on grammar alone. According to Lambert and colleagues, this bilingual advantage is due to:
A. positive reinforcement.
B. regression toward the mean.
C. increased word power.
D. opponent-process theory.

d

The linguistic determinism hypothesis could be challenged by the finding that:
A. infants' babbling contains many phonemes that do not occur in their own language and that they therefore cannot have heard.
B. the Eskimo language contains a number of words for snow, whereas English has only one.
C. chimps can learn to communicate spontaneously by using sign language.
D. people with no word for a certain shape can still perceive that shape accurately.

a

Learning a spoken language during early childhood __________ the ability to learn sign language during adolescence. Learning sign language during early childhood __________ the ability to learn a spoken language during adolescence.
A. facilitates; facilitates
B. inhibits; inhibits
C. inhibits; facilitates
D. facilitates; inhibits

a

Marcy was not exposed to spoken or signed language during her early years because of abuse and neglect. We know that:
A. her ability to master any language is lost.
B. her ability to master her native language is not lost.
C. her ability to master a foreign language is not lost.
D. her ability to master sign language is not lost.

d

An African gray parrot at a pet store has been trained to "count" objects. For example, if you show him a tray of balls and ask him how many are red, he will answer correctly about 80 percent of the time. This parrot is displaying:
A. concept formation.
B. functional fixedness.
C. self-recognition.
D. numerical competence.

d

Sammie is celebrating his first birthday today. He can say numerous words like da-da, kitty, fish. Chomsky would say that Sammie is able to do this effortlessly because:
A. he has made associations between words and objects.
B. his parents reinforce every word he says.
C. he is brighter than most children his age.
D. he is equipped with a language acquisition device.

c

In the English language, adjectives are typically placed before nouns (e.g., "green car"). This illustrates an English language rule of:
A. phonemes.
B. semantics.
C. syntax.
D. algorithms.

c

Dr. Tan is interested in studying primate behavior as related to primate thought. If she wants to study behavior that other animal researchers have already found in primates, which of the following topics should she choose?
A. transmission of cultural patterns across generations
B. family loyalty
C. All of these behaviors have been found in primates.
D. altruism

a

_____________, most children are in the one-word stage.
A. Around their first birthday
B. At 20 months
C. At 8 months
D. At 18 months

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