German tribes had for centuries considered _____ sacred and resisted cutting them down to make room for farms. Even conversion to _____ didn't entirely change these attitudes.
At the beginning of the 8th century, the most important political development in the Frankish kingdom was the rise of _____, who served as mayor of the palace of _____ beginning in 714.
Charles Martel; Austrasia
The Merovingian dynasty was losing its control of the Frankish lands. When Charles Martel died in 741, his son _____ deposed the Merovingians.
Pepin's death in 768 brought to the throne of the Frankish kingdom his son, _____.
Charles the Great or Charlemagne
In 773, he (Charles) led his army into _____, crushed the _____, and took control of the Lombard state.
Charlemagne's insistence that the _____ convert to Christianity simply fueled their resistance. Not until 804, after 18 campaigns, was _____ finally pacified and added to Carolingian domain.
acted as judges, military leaders, and agents of the king- from the previous Merovingian dynasty
Instituted by Charlemagne to keep the counts in "check" and meant messengers of the Lord King
On _____, in 800, after Mass, _____ placed a crown on Charlemagne's head and proclaimed him emperor of the Romans.
Christmas Day; Pope Leo
The church looked to serve as a caretaker of marriage by stipulating that a girl _____ must give her consent to her guardian's choice of a husband or _____.
over fifteen; her marriage would not be valid in the eyes of the church.
A Frankish church council in 789 stipulated that marriage _____ and condemned the practice of concubinage and easy divorce.
an indissoluble sacrament
The Catholic Church encouraged the development of the _____ at the expense of the extended family; the conjugal unit came to be seen as the basic unit of society.
The early church fathers had stressed that celibacy and complete _____ constituted an ideal state superior to marriage.
The church viewed _____ as the lesser of two evils- it was a concession of human weakness and fulfilled the need for _____, sex and children.
The Church condemned infanticide and discouraged the practice- urging people to abandon unwanted children in _____. Following the example of Jesus' love for children, monks and nuns tended to _____.
churches; respect and preserve the virtues of childhood
Monastic libraries kept _____ and grew _____ to provide stocks of medical plants.
medical manuscripts; herbs
As pagans were converted to Christianity, miraculous _____ soon replaced pagan practices.
healing through the intervention of God, Jesus or the saints
The Empire eventually was divided into three sections: Charles the Bald obtained _____, which formed the core of the eventual kingdoms of France; Louis the German took _____ which became Germany AND Lothar received _____ including the Netherlands, the Rhineland, and northern Italy.
Frankish lands; the eastern lands; the title of emperor and a "Middle Kingdom"
The territories of the Middle Kingdom became a source of incessant _____ for the other two kingdoms for centuries.
land retained by the lord- one third to one half of cultivated lands scattered throughout the manor
The Abbasid rulers tried to break down the distinction between _____ and ______ Muslims.
The Arabs had _____ many of the richest provinces of the old _____. There was much fighting over the succession of the _____.
conquered; Roman Empire; caliphate