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German tribes had for centuries considered _____ sacred and resisted cutting them down to make room for farms. Even conversion to _____ didn't entirely change these attitudes.

trees; Christianity

At the beginning of the 8th century, the most important political development in the Frankish kingdom was the rise of _____, who served as mayor of the palace of _____ beginning in 714.

Charles Martel; Austrasia

The Merovingian dynasty was losing its control of the Frankish lands. When Charles Martel died in 741, his son _____ deposed the Merovingians.

Pepin

Pepin's death in 768 brought to the throne of the Frankish kingdom his son, _____.

Charles the Great or Charlemagne

In 773, he (Charles) led his army into _____, crushed the _____, and took control of the Lombard state.

Italy; Lombards

Charlemagne's insistence that the _____ convert to Christianity simply fueled their resistance. Not until 804, after 18 campaigns, was _____ finally pacified and added to Carolingian domain.

Saxons; Saxony

acted as judges, military leaders, and agents of the king- from the previous Merovingian dynasty

counts

Instituted by Charlemagne to keep the counts in "check" and meant messengers of the Lord King

missi dominici

On _____, in 800, after Mass, _____ placed a crown on Charlemagne's head and proclaimed him emperor of the Romans.

Christmas Day; Pope Leo

The church looked to serve as a caretaker of marriage by stipulating that a girl _____ must give her consent to her guardian's choice of a husband or _____.

over fifteen; her marriage would not be valid in the eyes of the church.

The church emphasized _____ and permanence.

monogamy

A Frankish church council in 789 stipulated that marriage _____ and condemned the practice of concubinage and easy divorce.

an indissoluble sacrament

The Catholic Church encouraged the development of the _____ at the expense of the extended family; the conjugal unit came to be seen as the basic unit of society.

nuclear family

The early church fathers had stressed that celibacy and complete _____ constituted an ideal state superior to marriage.

abstinence

The church viewed _____ as the lesser of two evils- it was a concession of human weakness and fulfilled the need for _____, sex and children.

marriage; companionship

The Church condemned infanticide and discouraged the practice- urging people to abandon unwanted children in _____. Following the example of Jesus' love for children, monks and nuns tended to _____.

churches; respect and preserve the virtues of childhood

For both rich and poor, the main staple of the Carolingian diet was _____.

bread

Both _____ and _____ were vices shared by many people in Carolingian society.

gluttony; drunkenness

Medical practice in Carolingian times stressed the use of _____ and _____.

medical herbs; bleeding

Monastic libraries kept _____ and grew _____ to provide stocks of medical plants.

medical manuscripts; herbs

As pagans were converted to Christianity, miraculous _____ soon replaced pagan practices.

healing through the intervention of God, Jesus or the saints

The Carolingian Empire began to disintegrate soon after _____.

Charlemagne's death

The Empire eventually was divided into three sections: Charles the Bald obtained _____, which formed the core of the eventual kingdoms of France; Louis the German took _____ which became Germany AND Lothar received _____ including the Netherlands, the Rhineland, and northern Italy.

Frankish lands; the eastern lands; the title of emperor and a "Middle Kingdom"

The territories of the Middle Kingdom became a source of incessant _____ for the other two kingdoms for centuries.

struggle

warriors swore an oath of loyalty to their leaders

vassalage

land or some other type of income granted to a vassal in return for military service

fief

agricultural estate operated by a lord and worked by peasants

manor

land retained by the lord- one third to one half of cultivated lands scattered throughout the manor

demesne

one tenth of produce given to local village church by serfs

tithe

The Abbasid rulers tried to break down the distinction between _____ and ______ Muslims.

Arab; non-Arab

Many Arabs began to _____ with their conquered peoples.

intermarry

The Abbasids built a new capital city, _____, on the Tigris River.

Baghdad

The Arabs had _____ many of the richest provinces of the old _____. There was much fighting over the succession of the _____.

conquered; Roman Empire; caliphate

commander

emir

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