Psy test #3

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Some bears kept in captivity allow veterinarians to routinely give them total body checkups. These bears open their mouths for teeth cleaning and present their paws for nail clipping. Your friend wonders how anyone could ever get these dangerous animals to be so cooperative without anesthesia. From your study of psychology, you quickly surmise that the bears have undergone an extensive ________ program. A. shaping
B. secondary reinforcement
c. fear extinction
D. discrimination

B.secondary reinforcement

Which process determines whether or not an imitated or modeled act will be repeated?
A. attention
B. replication
C. motor reproduction
D. reinforcement

D. reinforcement

John is taking an agent that causes nausea every time he smokes a cigarette. This is a form of
A. discrimination.
B. operant conditioning.
C. counterconditioning.
D. aversive conditioning.

D. aversive conditioning.

Jennifer was stung by a bee several days ago. Now she cries out whenever any flying insect comes too close. Jennifer is demonstrating
A. contingency.
B. generalization.
C. contiguity.
D. discrimination.

B. generalization.

Anticipating a scary event whenever eerie music is played in a movie is a function of
A. stimulus experience.
B. cognitive conditioning.
c. observational learning.
d. associative learning.

d. associative learning.

Cecil turns off all the lights in his house to avoid a huge electric bill. Cecil's behavior is an example of
A. generalization.
B. discrimination.
C. negative reinforcement.
D. positive reinforcement.

C. negative reinforcement.

Little Henry knows that when he goes shopping with Mommy and throws a tantrum, he never gets a treat. However, he also knows that if he throws a tantrum when his Dad takes him, his Dad always gives in. Little Henry is demonstrating
A. habituation.
B. renewal.
C. generalization.
D. discrimination.

D. discrimination.

Fred's parents are very inconsistent. Most of the time Fred climbs on the furniture without receiving any reprimands, however sometimes he is punished for this behavior. Fred's parents cannot understand why he is not a better behaved child. Fred's parents are reinforcing his negative behaviors on a ________ schedule.
A. fixed ratio
B. fixed interval
C. continuous reinforcement
D. partial reinforcement

D. partial reinforcement

A worker is paid $25 for every 20 wind chimes that she builds. On which schedule of reinforcement is she being paid?
A. variable ratio
B. fixed interval
C. fixed ratio
D. continuous

C. fixed ratio

Jill watches as the teacher praises Ricky for getting the right answer. She decides to study harder in class. Jill is demonstrating
A. vicarious reinforcement.
B. negative reinforcement.
C. vicarious punishment.
D. positive learning.

A. vicarious reinforcement.

Your friend reported feeling greater energy and a sense of well-being after taking a drug. Medical tests reveal increased activity of her central nervous system. The drug she took is most likely some type of
A. depressant.
B. stimulant.
C. hallucinogen.
D. tranquilizer.

B. stimulant.

People who are easily hypnotized usually
A. can become deeply immersed in an imaginary activity.
b. have difficulty keeping their place in a conversation or while reading.
C. can focus and concentrate without great effort.
d. can fall asleep easily.

A. can become deeply immersed in an imaginary activity.

Which of the following is not mentioned in your text
as a condition treated by hypnosis?
A. overeating
B. schizophrenia
c. alcoholism
D. depression

B. schizophrenia

Moesha is always tired. She falls into bed about 10:30 every evening and is asleep in seconds, but she wakes up frequently throughout the night. She is most likely suffering from
A. sleep apnea.
B. narcolepsy.
C. night terrors.
D. insomnia.

D. insomnia.

Night terrors typically occur
A. following sleep apnea.
B. during non-REM sleep.
C. among older adults.
D. within three hours of falling asleep.

D. within three hours of falling asleep.

Thinking about thinking is referred to as
A. consciousness.
B. a stream of consciousness.
C. an altered state of awareness.
D. metacognition.

D. metacognition.

Thomas seems unaware that his mom has been calling him for the last five minutes. He is playing his video game and about to move to the last level. What is Thomas demonstrating?
A. daydreaming
B. selective attention
C. arousal
D. automaticity

B. selective attention

A class project required a student nurse to make hourly records of her own blood pressure and body temperature over a 30-day period. When the data were graphed, it became clear that these readings changed in a predictable way on a daily basis. The reason for this regularity is that many physiological processes are
A. controlled by daily lunar cycles.
B. governed by circadian rhythms.
C. correlated with lunar rotation.
D. determined by subconscious expectations.

B. governed by circadian rhythms.
.

They were standing in the middle of the kitchen
discussing vacation plans when Nolan suddenly crashed to the floor in a deep REM sleep. Nolan's behavior indicates that he is suffering from
A. sleep apnea.
B. night terrors.
C. insomnia.
D. narcolepsy.

D. narcolepsy.

"Medical marijuana" is known to
A. promote appetite.
B. relieve pain.
C. calm anxiety.
D. All of these.

A. promote appetite.
B. relieve pain.
C. calm anxiety.
D. All of these.

_______? is a learning process in which a neutral stimulus becomes associated with a meaningful stimulus and acquires the capacity to elicit similar response.

Classical conditioning

In _______? organisms learn the association between behavior and a consequence, organisms such as an award.

operate condition

________? Learning that occurs when a person observes and imitates anthers behavior.

observational learning

________? is a systematic, relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs through experience.

Learning

_________? a theory of learning that focuses solely on observable behaviors, discounting the importance of such mental activity as thinking, wishing, and hoping.

behaviorism

________? learning that occurs when we make a connection, or an association, between two events.

associative learning

_______? learning that occurs when a person observes and imitates another s behavior.

observational learning

_______? a stimulus that produces a response without prior learning.

unconditional stimulus UCS

_______? an unlearned reaction that is automatically elicited by the unconditioned stimulants.

Unconditional response UCR

________? a previously neutral stimulus that eventually elicited a conditioned response after being paired with the unconditioned stimulus.

Conditioned stimulus CS

________? the learned response to the conditioned stimulus that occurs after conditioned stimulus- unconditional stimulus pairing.

Conditioned response CR

________? the initial learning of the connection between the unconditioned stimulus and the conditioned stimulus when these stimuli are paired.

acquisition

________? simply means that CS and UCS are presented very close together in time even a mere fraction of a second.

Contiguity

________? means that the CS must not only precede the UCS closely in time it must be also served as a reliable indicator that the UCS is on its way.

Contingency

_______? The tendency of a new stimulus that is similar to original conditioned stimulus to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response

generalization

________? the process of learning to respond to certain stimuli and not others.

discrimination

_______? the weakening of the conditional response when the unconditioned stimulus is absent.

extinction

_______? the process in classical conditioning by which a conditioned response can recur after a time delay, without further conditioning.

spontaneously

________? as the effect of a substance or procedure such as taking a pill.

placebo effect

_________? is a classical conditioning procedure for changing the relationship between a conditioned stimulus and its conditioned response.

Counter conditioning

_________? decreased responsiveness to a stimulus after repeated presentations.

habituation

_______? such as a students studying hard for a test, a gambler playing a slot machines in Los Vagas, or a dog's searching for a finding his owner lost phone.

voluntary behaviors

_________? behaviors followed by positive outcomes are strengthened and that behaviors followed by negative outcomes are weakened.

Law and effect

______? trained pigeons to guide missiles in war world 2.

B.F Skinners

_______? rewarding approximations of a desired behavior.

shaping

________? following a particular behavior increases the probability that the behavior will happen again.

reinforcement

______? presentation of something that is good.

positive reinforcement

________? something that is unpleasant.

negative reinforcement

________? a reinforces that is innately satisfying; one that does not take any learning on the organisms part to make it pleasurable.

Primary reinforced

________? is learned on or conditioned reinforces.

secondary reinforces

_______? in which a behavior is reinforced every time it occurs.

continuous reinforcement

________? reinforces the first behavior after a fixed amount of time has passed.

fixed- interval

_________? is a timetable in which a behavior is reinforced after a variable amount of timed has elapsed.

Variable internal schedule

_______? means performing a reinforced behavior in a different situation.

generalization

_____? means responding appropriately to will stimuli that signal a behavioral will or will not be reinforced

discrimination

______? occurs when a behavior is no longer reinforced and decreases in frequency.

extinction

_________? a consequences that decreases the likelihood that a behavior will occur.

punishment

______? the presentation of an unpleasant stimulants following a given behavior in order to decrease the frequency of that behavior.

positive puishment

______? the removal of a positive stimulus following a given behavior in order to decrease the frequency of the behavior.

negative punishment.

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