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b

What key advantage did Spanish invaders have over the native peoples they conquered? a. Spanish soldiers had studied Native American military strategies.
b. Spanish soldiers had horses and superior weapons.
c. Spaniards employed the strategy of nighttime attacks.
d. Spain's navy was superior to all others in the New World.

c

What did many English settlers hope to gain by leaving their native land and settling in the New World?
a. gold and silver
b. escape from a harsh climate
c. religious freedom
d. a democratic system of government

b

Which European is credited with ushering in the Age of Exploration?
a. Christopher Columbus
b. Prince Henry
c. Amerigo Vespucci
d. Ferdinand Magellan

c

Which best describes a reason that Europeans set forth on voyages of exploration in the 1400s?
a. they were trying to escape the famine that was sweeping across Europe
b. They wanted to initiate trade with the West Indies
c. They were looking for new trade routes to Asia
d. they were looking for places to settle that had a mild climate

c

Which country sponsored Columbus's expedition that discovered the Americas?
a. England
b. France
c. Spain
d. Portugal

a

What were explorers hoping to find by searching for the Northwest Passage?
a. a sea route to Asia across North America
b. an overland route across North America
c. a northwestern sea rout to America
d. an overland route to northwest Asia

b

Which country colonized the region that is now Brazil?
a. spain
b. portugal
c. england
d. france

c

Which Native American empires did Spanish conquistadors conquer?
a. maya and olmec
b. zapatec and nazca
c. aztec and inca
d. mexico and florida

b

To which New World location were the most enslaved Africans sent to work?
a. wheat farms in New England
b. sugar cane plantations in the West Indies
c. coffee plantations in Central America
d. mines and farms in South America

a

What crop spurred population growth in Europe after it was brought to Europe from the Americas?
a. potatoes
b. tomatoes
c. sugar cane
d. wheat

b

Which best describes a joint-stock company?
a. a company that sells stock to the public in a stock exchange
b. a company owned by investors who share the profits
c. a company that sells stock in both gold and silver mines
d. a company owned by several federal governments

d

Which European country was the first to ship African slaves to the Americas?
a. england
b. france
c. spain
d. portugal

d

What was the Reformation?
a. the concept of God's foreknowledge of those chosen for salvation and those not chosen
b. the trial of Martin Luther held in Worms
c. the printing and distribution of Bibles in German
d. the religious movement that led to the division of Christianity into Catholic and Protestant

c

Who broke from the Roman Catholic Church and formed the Church of England in order to remarry?
a. John Calvin
b. Charles V
c. Henry VIII
d. Leo X

b

Which describes a way that the Roman Catholic Church responded to the spread of Protestantism?
a. The Holy Roman Empire declared war on Protestant nations.
b. Pope Paul III convened the Council of Trent.
c. Ignatius of Loyola founded a society to support Protestant churches.
d. The Roman Catholic Church accepted Protestants as equals.

d

Which describes an effect of the Protestant and Catholic reformations?
a. Jews began to be accepted into different societies.
b. The Bible was printed only in Latin and Greek.
c. Religion became less accessible to people.
d. Monarchs acquired more power and established nation-states.

d

Which was a result of the Thirty Years' War?
a. idea of Europe as a Catholic realm was strengthened
b. Catholicism became the official religion of England
c. Germany was much closer to becoming a unified nation
d. Spain was a weaker nation and France a stronger one

c

Which absolute monarch toured western Europe for ideas on modernizing his nation and invaded other countries in order to secure warm-water ports?
a. Louis XIV
b. Prince Frederick
c. Peter I
d. Charles V

c

Which best describes the Protestant Reformation?
a. the movement in the Roman Catholic Church to create new religious denominations
b. the attempts by the Lutheran Church to spread to western Europe
c. the movement in Europe that resulted in the division of Christianity into Catholic and Protestant
d. the spread of Christian religions to Scandinavia and Russia in the 1500s

a

Which was one of the reasons Martin Luther wrote his Ninety-five Theses?
a. the Church's sale of indulgences to pardon sins
b. the use of the Bible by ordinary citizens
c. the methods used by the Inquisition to convert Jews
d. the worship of graven images in churches and cathedrals

d

What was the result of the spread of Martin Luther's ideas throughout western Europe?
a. Popes accepted the establishment of Protestantism.
b. Catholicism spread in western Europe.
c. Churches began to print Bibles only in Latin.
d. Christian unity ended in western Europe.

b

Who broke from the Roman Catholic Church so he could remarry and became the head of a new Protestant church in his country?
a. Leo X
b. Henry VIII
c. Charles V
d. John Calvin

d

Who relocated to Switzerland in order to escape religious persecution in France and taught the concept of predestination?
a. Leo X
b. Martin Luther
c. Charles V
d. John Calvin

a

How did the Roman Catholic Church respond to the spread of Protestantism?
a. It attempted to reform itself by correcting bad practices and clarifying its teachings.
b. It gave more power to Charles V, emperor of the Holy Roman Empire.
c. It began printing Bibles in English, French, and Spanish.
d. It raised an army and invaded Sweden and the German states.

c

What role did the Council of Trent play in the Catholic Reformation?
a. It commissioned the translation of the Bible into English.
b. It brought heretics before judges for punishment.
c. It attempted to clarify the doctrine of the Catholic Church.
d. It established schools to educate young Catholics.

b

What was the purpose of the Inquisition?
a. prepare young men for the priesthood
b. stop the spread of ideas considered heretical
c. educate university students about Catholic doctrine
d. promote the ideas of Martin Luther

d

Which was an effect of the Protestant and Catholic reformations?
a. The number and power of nation-states decreased.
b. Jews became more accepted in European society.
c. The Holy Roman Empire grew in size and power.
d. Education became more important in society.

c

What did an uprising by Czech Protestants against the Catholic ruler of the Holy Roman Empire result in?
a. the unification of Germany
b. the Inquisition
c. the Thirty Years' War
d. the English Civil War

a

Which was an important result of the Thirty Years' War?
a. The modern concept of Europe as a collection of independent states emerged.
b. Spain emerged as Europe's most powerful nation and France was left weakened.
c. The unification of German states resulted in the modern nation of Germany.
d. The Holy Roman Empire was larger and more powerful than before.

d

When did absolute monarchs begin to appear in Europe?
a. at the beginning of the Counter-Reformation
b. before the Thirty Years' War
c. during the Thirty Years' War
d. after the Thirty Years' War

d

Who ruled by divine right in France, extended that nation's borders, and built a palace at Versailles?
a. Peter I
b. Charles V
c. Philip
d. Louis XIV

b

Which best explains the cause of the English Civil War?
a. the persecution of Protestants by Catholics
b. conflict between the Stuart kings and Parliament
c. the spread of Protestantism in England
d. the execution of Charles I

b

What was the immediate outcome of the English Civil War?
a. The Royalists won, and Charles II reigned during the Restoration.
b. The Roundheads won, and Cromwell became the military dictator of the Commonwealth.
c. France invaded during the war and placed a French noble on the throne.
d. William and Mary took the throne and established a constitutional monarchy.

c

How did the Glorious Revolution establish a constitutional monarchy in England?
a. The Church of England forced James II to increase Parliament's power.
b. Charles II signed legislation limiting the power of the monarchy.
c. William agreed to sign the English Bill of Rights as a condition of becoming king.
d.Oliver Cromwell established a constitutional monarchy after winning the civil war.

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