cell organelles honors

36 terms by dkoons 

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nucleus

a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction

nuclear membrane

A highly-porous membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm

nuclear pore

A small hole in the nuclear envelope through which substances pass between the nucleus and the cytoplasm

nucleolus

small, dense region within most nuclei in which ribosomes are assembled

ribosome

a cell organelle composed of RNA and protein; the site of protein synthesis

rough endoplasmic reticulum

System of internal membranes within the cytoplasm. Membranes are rough due to the presence of ribosomes. functions in transport of substances such as proteins within the cytoplasm

smooth endoplasmic reticulum

A network of membranes inside eukarytoic cells invovled in lipid synthesis (steroid in gonads), detoxification (in liver cells), and/or Ca2+ storage (muscle cells).

Golgi Apparatus

Organelle that modifies, sorts, and packages proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum and send proteins to their final destination

lysosomes

vesicles that bud from the Golgi apparatus and that contain digestive enzymes

mitochondria

Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production

chloroplast

Organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis

central vacuole

a membrane-bound sac within the cytoplasm that is filled with water and dissolved substances. stores metabolic wastes and gives a plant cell support by means of turgor pressure

centrioles

One of two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm of animal cells near the nuclear envelope; play a role in cell division.

cell wall

strong supporting layer around the cell membrane in plants, algae, and some bacteria

cell membrane

thin, flexible barrier around a cell; regulates what enters and leaves the cell

vault

newly discovered organelle that is thought to play a role in the transport of molecules (such as mRNA) from the nucleus to the cytoplasm.

cytoplasm

a jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended

chromsome

Threadlike strands of DNA and protein in a cell nucleus that carry the code for the cell characteristics of an organism.

vacuoles

saclike structures that store materials such as water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates

endomembrane system

The collection of membranes inside and around a eukaryotic cell, related either through direct physical contact or by the transfer of membranous vesicles; includes the nuclear membrane, smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and vacuoles.

cytoskeleton

A meshwork of fine fibers in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell; includes microfilaments, intermediate filaments, and microtubules

microfilaments

The thinnest of the three main kinds of protein fibers making up the cytoskeleton of a eukaryotic cell; a solid, helical rod composed of the globular protein actin

intermediate filaments

An intermediate-sized protein fiber that is one of the three main kinds of fibers making up the cytoskeleton of eukaryotic cells. Intermediate filaments are ropelike, made of fibrous proteins.

microtubules

The thickest of the three main kinds of fibers making up the cytoskeleton of a eukaryotic cell; a straight, hollow tube made of globular proteins called tubulins. These form the basis of the structure and movement of cilia and flagella.

prokaryote

A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and other membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea.

eukaryote

A type of cell that has a membrane-enclosed nucleus and other membrane-enclosed organelles. All organisms except bacteria and archaea are composed of eukaryotic cells.

cell theory

This says that all living things are made of cells, that cells are the basic unit of structure and function and that cells only come from other cells.

pili

Appendages that allow bacteria to attach to each other and to transfer DNA

capsule

A sticky layer that surrounds the cell walls of some bacteria, protecting the cell surface and sometimes helping to glue the cell to surfaces.

nucleoid region

The region in a prokaryotic cell consisting of a concentrated mass of DNA.

chromosome

condensed threads of genetic material formed from chromatin as a cell prepares to divide

plasmodesmata

Open channels in the cell wall of a plant through which strands of cytosol connect from an adjacent cell.

extracellular matrix

The substance in which animal tissue cells are embedded, consisting of protein and polysaccharides

tight junctions

A type of intercellular junction in animal cells that prevents the leakage of material between cells

anchoring junctions

rivet cells together with cytoskeletal fibers, to form strong sheets

gap junctions

provide cytoplasmic channels between adjacent animal cells

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