Biochemistry - Degredation of Fatty Acids

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Saturated FA

A FA with no double bonds

Unsaturated FA

A FA with double bonds

Triacylglycerol

Three FA connected to glycerol via an ester linkage

Acid-stable lipase

This enzyme breaks down fat droplets into emulsion droplets in the stomach

Pancreatic lipase

This enzyme attacks emulsion droplets and turns TAG into MAG and 2FAs

Phospholipase A2

Cleaves glycerol phospholipids into FA and lysophophatide

Bile

A liver product that is released by the gallbladder which contains detergents derived from cholesterol.

Micelles

Bile breaks down emulsion droplets into this. They can contain FA, MAG, cholesterol, and hydrophobic vitamins.

Short and medium chain

These types of FA are released into the bloodstream through intestinal cells.

Long and very long chain

These types of FA react with MAG to form TAG before they are put into chylomicrons

Lymphatic system

What system to do chylomicrons use to reach the bloodstream?

Lipoprotein lipase

What enzyme in the blood releases FFAs from chylomicrons?

VLDL

TAGs made in the liver are transported in blood in the form of....

TAG lipase

This enzyme converts TAG into DAG

Adrenaline, glucagon, ACTH

These hormones activate TAG lipase

Insulin

This hormone inhibits TAG lipase

Albumin

This protein binds plasma FFAs as a carrier

Acyl CoA synthetase

This enzyme is the first step in FA metabolism. Uses ATP->AMP to attach CoA to FA.

Carnitine

FAs with >10 carbons must be bound to this to enter the mitochondrion

Carnitine acyltranferase

This enzyme joins a FA to carnitine in the cytosol and in the mitochondrion

Translocase

This enzyme transports FA-carnitine into the mitochondion

Mitochondria, ER, peroxisome

Beta-oxidation can take place in...

Acyl CoA dehydrogenase

This enzyme connects a FA to CoA in the form of enoyl CoA. There is a one of these for long, medium and short chain FAs.

Enoyl CoA hydratase

This enzyme hydrates the trans double bond of enoyl CoA. The second step in B-oxidation and produces the L-isomer only.

L-3-hydroxyacyl dehydrogenase

The enzyme in the third step of B-oxidation. Oxidizes to form a ketone and produces NADH.

Thiolase

This enzyme repeatedly cleaves off two carbon units in the form of Ac-CoA until the last cycle yields two Ac-CoAs.

9

How many acetyl-CoA will be produced from a 18-carbon FA?

8

How many NADH and FADH2 will be produced from an 18-carbon FA?

2

How many ATP equivalents are burned in the activation stages of FA metabolism.

Enoyl-CoA isomerase

This enzyme converts a cis bond to a trans bond when it is 3 carbons away from the Ac-CoA that is about to be cleaved.

2,4-dienoyl CoA reductase

This enzyme removes the trans bond formed by Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase and change the cis bond of a unsaturated FA one carbon closer to Ac-CoA. The product can now be processed by enoyl-CoA isomerase.

8

How many acetyl-CoA will be produced from a 18-carbon FA with 1 unsaturated bond?

7

How many NADH and FADH2 will be produced from a 18-carbon FA with 1 unsaturated bond?

Acetyl-CoA and propionyl-CoA

What are the products of the last step of B-oxidation in an odd numbered FA?

Vitamin B12 and Biotin

What cofactors are required to process propionyl-CoA into succinyl-CoA?

Peroxisomes

Where are very long chain FAs normally processed?

True

T/F?
Generally fats are not converted into carbohydrates.

Odd numbered FA

As an exception, what type of FA could give a net yield of anabolic carbohydrates?

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