Medical Terminology

57 terms by brook612 

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arteries

the blood vessels that carry blood away from the heart

blood vessels

the closed system of tubes that conducts blood throughout the body, it consists of arteries, veins, and capillaries

capillaries

the smallest blood or lympatic vessels,very thin to allow gas, nutrient, and waste exchange between the blood and tissues.

carbon dioxide

a waste product of cellular energy production, it is removed from the cells by the blood and eliminated from the body by the lungs

circulatory system

system that transports blood to all areas of the body, the organs, includes the heart and blood vessels

deoxygenated

blood in the veins that is low in oxygen content

heart

organ of the cardiovascular system that contracts to pump blood through the blood vessels

oxygen (O2)

gaseous element absorbed by the blood from the air sacs in the lungs, it is necessary for cells to make energy

oxygenated

blood with a high oxygen level

pulmonary circulation

transports deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged, then carries oxygenated blood back to the left side of the heart

systemic circulation

transports oxygenated blood from the left side of the heart to the cells of the body and then back to the right side of the heart

veins

blood vessels of the cardiovascular system that carry blood toward the heart

apex

directional term meaning tip or summit, an area of the lungs and heart

cardiac muscle

involuntary muscle found in the heart

endocardium

inner layer of the heart, which is very smooth and lines the chambers of the heart

epicardium

outer layer of the heart, forms part of the pericardium

myocardium

middle layer of the muscle, it is thick and composed of cardiac muscle, produces the heart contraction

parietal pericardium

outer layer of the pericardium surrounding the heart

pericardium

double-walled outer sac around the heart

visceral pericardium

inner layer of the pericardium surrounding the heart

atria

two upper chambers of the heart

interatrial septum

wall or septum that divides the left and right atria

interventricular septum

wall or septum that divides the left and right ventricles

ventricles

two layer chambers of the heart that receive blood from the atria and pump it back out of the heart

aortic valve

largest artery in the body, located in the mediastinum and carries oxygenated blood away from the left side of the heart

atrioventricular valve (AV)

heart valves located between an atrium and a ventricle

bicuspid valve

a valve between the left atrium and ventricle, it prevents blood from flowing backwards into the atrium, ahas two cusps or flaps

cusps

the leaflets or flaps of a heart valve

mitral valve

a valve between the left atrium and ventricle in the heart, prevents blood from flowing backwards into the atrium has two cusps or flaps

pulmonary valve

semilunar valve between the right ventricle and pulmonary artery in the heart, prevents blood from flowing backwards into the ventricle

semilunar valve

heart valves located between the ventricles and the great arteries leaving the heart

tricuspid valve

a valve between the right atrium and ventricle of the heart, prevents blood from flowing backwards into the atrium, has three cusps or flaps

aorta

largest artery in the body located in the mediastinum and carries oxygenated blood away from the left side of the heart

diastole

period of time during which a heart chamber is relaxed

inferior vena cava

the branch of the vena cava that drains blood from the abdomen and lower body

pulmonary artery

large artery that carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lung

pulmonary veins

large vein that returns oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium

superior vena cava

branch of the vena cava that drains blood from the chest and upper body

systole

the period of time during which a heart chamber is contracting

atrioventricular bundle

in the heart, conducts the electrical impulse from the atrioventricular node into the ventricles

atrioventricular node

area at the junction of the right atrium and ventricle receives the stimulus from the sinoatrial node and sends the impulse to the ventricles through the bundle of His

autonomic nervous system

portion of the nervous system that consists of nerves to the internal organs that function involuntarily, regulates the functions of glands, the adrenal medulla, heart, and smooth muscle tissue, is divided into two parts sympathetic and parasympathetic

bundle branches

part of the conduction system of the heart, the electrical signal travels down the bundle of His results int he ventricles beating at a different rate than the atria also called a heart block

bundle of His

located in the interventricular septum, receives the electrical impulse from the atrioventricular node and distributes it through the ventricular walls causing them to contract simultaneously

pacemaker

another name for the sinoatrial node of the heart

Purkinje fibers

part of the conduction system of the heart, found in the ventricular myocardium

sinoatrial node

also called a pacemaker of the heart, is an area of the right atria that initiates the electrical pulse that causes the heart to contract

lumen

space, cavity, or channel within a tube or tubular organ or structure in the body

arterioles

smallest branches of the arteries, carry blood to the capillaries

coronary arteries

group of three arteries that branch off the aorta and carry blood to the myocardium

capillary bed

network of capillaries found in a given tissue or organ

venules

smallest veins, receive deoxygenated blood leaving the capillaries

blood pressure

measurment of the pressure that is exerted by blood against the walls of a blood vessel

diastolic pressure

the lower the pressure within blood vessels during the relaxation phase of the heart beat

pulse

expansion and contraction produced by blood as it moves through an artery, can be taken at several pulse points throughout the body where an artery is close to the surface

systolic pressure

maximum pressure within blood vessels during a heart contraction

lymph capillaries

collect lymph fluid from the tissues and carry it to the larger lymph vessels

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