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Includes vision, thesholds ect.

Sensation

the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment.

Perception

the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.

Bottom-up processing

analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain's integration of sensory information.

Top-down processing

information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experiences and expectations

psychophysics

the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them.

absolute threshold

the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time

signal detection theory

a theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a paint stimulus (signal) amid background stimulation (noise). Assumes there is no single absolute threshold and that detection depends partly on a person's experience, expectations, motivation, and level of fatigue.

subliminal

below one's absolute threshold for conscious awareness.

priming

the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one's perception, memory, or response.

difference threshold

the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time. We experience the difference threshold as a just noticeable difference (JND)

Weber's Law

the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage.

sensory adaptation

diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation

transduction

conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret.

wavelength

the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next.

hue

the dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light.

intensity

the amount of energy in a light or sound wave, which we perceive as brightness or loudness, as determined by the wave's amokutyde

pupil

the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters.

iris

a ring of muscle tissue that forms the colored portion of the eye around the pupil and controls the size of the pupil opening.

lens

the transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to help focus images on the retina.

retina

the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information.

accommodation

the process by which they eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina.

rods

retinal receptors that detect black, white, and gray; necessary for peripheral and twilight vision, when cones don't respond.

cones

retinal receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. They detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.

optic nerve

the nerve that carries neural impulses from the eye to the brain.

blind spot

the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot because no receptor cells are located there

fovea

the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster.

feature detectors

nerve cells in the brain that respond to specific features of the stimulus, such as shape, angle, or movement.

parallel processing

the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision.

Young-Helmholtz trichromatic Theory

the theory that the retina contains three different color receptors-one most sensitive to red, one to green, one to blue - which, when stimulated in combination, can produce the perception of any color.

opponent-process theory

the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision.

audtion

the sense or act of hearing.

frequency

the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time. (ex. per second)

pitch

a tone's experienced highness or lowness; depends on frequency.

middle ear

the chamber between the eardrum and cochlea containing three tiny bones (hammer, anvil and stirrup) that concentrate the vibrations of the eardrum on the cochlea's oval window.

cochlea

a coiled, bony, fluid-filled tube in the inner ear through which sound waves trigger nerve impulses.

inner-ear

the innermost part of the ear, containing the cochlea, semicircular canals, and vestibular sacs.

place theory

in hearing, the theory that links the pitch we hear with the place where the cochlea's membrane is stimulated.

frequency theory

in hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch.

conduction hearing loss

hearing loss caused by damage to the mechanical system that conducts sound waves to the cochlea

sensorineural hearing loss

hearing loss caused by damage to the cochlea's receptor cells or to the auditory nerves; also called nerve deafness.

cochlear implant

a device for converting sounds into electrical signals and stimulating the auditory nerve through electrodes threaded into the cochlea.

kinesthesis

the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts

vestibular sense

the sense of body movement and position, including the sense of balance.

gate-control theory

the theory that the spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brian. the "gate" is opened by the activity of pain signals traveling up small nerve fibers and is closed by activity in larger fibers or by information coming from the brain.

sensory interaction

the principle that one sense may influence another, as when the smell of food influences its taste.

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