bridge of nose
posterior bones of the hard palate
much of the lateral and superior cranium
most posterior part of cranium
singe, irregular, bat shaped
tiny bone bearing tear duct
anterior part of hard palate
superior and middle nasal conchae formed from its projections
site of mastoid process
site of sella turcica
site of cribriform plate
site of mental foramen
temporal, ethmoid, sphenoid, frontal
site of styloid processes
four bones containing paranasal sinuses
condyles here articulate with the atlas
foramen magnum contained here
small u-shaped bone in neck
middle ear found here
bears the cristal galli
Group of cells that are similar in structure and function
Four Tissue Types
Nervous, Connective, Epithelial, and Muscle
a body tissue that covers the surfaces of the body, inside and out
Special Characteristics of Epithelium
2. Special Contacts
3. Supported by Connective Tissues
the side of an epithelial cell that faces the outer body or a body cavity. ALWAYS USE THE APICAL LAYER TO IDENTIFY STRATIFIED TISSUES.
The bottom layer of epithelial tissue that attaches to the basement membrane
A special characteristic of Epithelial Tissue. Fingerlike extensions of the plasma membrane. Increase the surface area. In the trachea, microvilli have a transport function moving mucus out of the respiratory system.
basement membrane. complex structure produced by the basal surface of epithelium and underlying connective tissue. Found under the basal surface.
the bottom layer of the basement membrane that contains proteins such as collagen. It is produced by connective tissue cells (fibroblasts) Under basal surface.
The two ways to classify Epithelia
Shape of cells and number of cell layers
A single layer of thin, flat cells. It is often found where diffusion or filtration take place (alveoli in lungs, kidneys). It also covers organs in the pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities.
a type of simple squamous epithelium that provides a slick, friction-reducing lining for lymphatic vessels and hollow organs of the cardiovascular system
the epithelium found in serous membranes lining the ventral body cavity and covering its organs
two or more layers of cells
Three shapes of cells
Squamous (flat,) Cuboidal, and Columnar
Simple Squamous Epithelium
Single layer of flattened cells with disc-shaped central nuclei and tile-like appearance. Look like fried eggs when cut perpendicular; the simplest of epithelia. Functions - Allows passage of materials through diffusion/filtration. Secretes lubricating substances in Serosae. Locations- Kidney glomeruli, AIR SACS OF LUNGS, lining of heart, blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, and lining of ventral cavity
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
A single layer of cube-like cells that carry out active transport, facilitated diffusion, or secretion. Looks like a string of beads when darkly stained under scope. Round and plump nucleus. Location -found in kidney tubules. They often have cilia and microvilli on the surface. Function - Secretion/Absorption
Simple Columnar Epithelium
A single layer of tall, thin cells. Elongated nuclei. These large cells contain organelles that enable them to perform complex functions. Alligned like soldiers in a row. Function - produces and secretes mucus and digestive enzymes. These often have cilia and microvilli on the surface that can propel mucus. Location - Line the DIGESTIVE TRACT, gallbladder, uterus, uterine tubes, and small bronchi
Pseudostratified Columnar Epithelium
Epithelial tissue that only appears to be stratified. There is only one layer of cells, but there often appears to be two or more layers. This is because some of the cells are tall and reach the free surface, while others are short and do not reach the surface. Function - Secretion particularly of mucus. Location - line certain glands and ducts, LINING OF THE UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT. There is cilia located on the free surface of these cells. MOTILE CILIA located here propel mucus superiorly away from lungs.
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
A thick epithelium, because of the several layers of cells. The deepest cells are actually cuboidal or columnar and are cabale of dividing and producing new cells. As the new cells are pushed to the surface, they become flat and thin. The "keratinized" cell of this type covers the skin. Function - protect areas subject to rough treatment. Location - linings of esophagus,mouth, vagina, and keratinized forms become the epidermis.
Stratified Cuboidal Epithelium
Rare form - found in sweat and mammary glands. Typically two cell layers thick
Stratified Columnar Epithelium
Limited presence in body. pharynx, male urethra, and lining of some glandular ducts. AT THE TRANSITION POINT OF ESOPHAGUS TO STOMACH.
Apical layer is dome shaped. similar to stratified squamous and stratified cuboidal epithelium. Basal cells are cuboidal or columnar. Stretches and permits distension of bladder
Makes or secretes glandular fluid. Classified by site of product release - endocrine or exocrine OR by relative number of cells forming the gland (ex. goblet cells or multicellular.)
Lose their ducts. Ductless glands. Function - Produce hormones and secrete them into the blood stream or lymphatic fluid.
Secrete their products onto the body surface. Include mucous, sweat, oil and salivary glands. Also include Liver and Pancreas.
MOST ABUNDANT TYPE OF TISSUE. Includes: Blood, cartilage, bone, connective tissue proper, and fat. Functions - binding and support, protection, insulation and transportation.
Structural Elements of Connective Tissue
1. Ground Substance
Serves as the glue for Connective tissue allowing these tissues to connect to matrix elements. An amorphous (unstructured) gel-like material composed of interstitial fluid, glycoproteins and glycosaminoglycans. Ground substance holds large amounts of fluid and can act as a sieve allowing nutrients to diffuse through from the blood
collagen, elastin, reticular
Tough, flexible fibers that add strength and support to tissues (the thickest and most abundant of the 3 fibers)
Long threads made of the protein elastin. provide a rubbery quality to the extracellular matrix that complements the nonelastic strength of collagenous fibers. Elastic fibers snap the connective tissue back to its normal shape. Found in skin, lungs, and blood vessel walls.
short, fine, collagenous fibers, branch extensively forming delicate networks that surround small blood vessels
Voluntary. Surrounds all major organs except the heart.
Involuntary. Muscle tissue exclusive to the heart.
Involuntary. , A muscle that is attached to the bones of the skeleton and provides the force that moves the bones.
ex: fibroblast. Blast means forming, or immature. immature bone is called osteoblast
the less active mature phase of a cell. osteocyte- not much happening in the bone now except for when injuries occur
white blood cells
mobile, defensive units.
areolar connective tissue
Contains collagen, elastic, and reticular fibers. Functions- Support/bond other tissues, hold body fluids, defend against infection, store nutrients as fat. All the body's cells obtain their nutrients from and release their waste to this type of tissue fluid.
Connective tissue proper
made up of LOOSE and DENSE. Loose - Areolar, adipose, and reticular. Dense - dense regular, dense irregular, and elastic. EXCEPT for bone, cartilage, and blood, all mature connective tissues belong to this class.
richly vascularized, fatty cells. Among the largest cells in the body and can change in size depending on fat content. serve as a nutrient storage site and insulator.
reticular connective tissue
Loose connective tissue in which reticular fibres predominate, forming the stroma of lymph nodes, the spleen, bone marrow, and the liver.
Dense regular connective tissue
Connective tissue made from collagen fibers that run in the same direction (makes tendons and ligaments)
dense irregular connective tissue
interwoven meshwork in no consistent pattern; forms thick fibrous layer called capsule; provides strength to resist forces applied from many directions; helps prevent overexpansion of organs such as the urinary bladder. Also found as the leathery dermis.
elastic connective tissue
Connective tissue made from elastic fibers that allows stretching (found in the lungs, artery walls, vocal cords)
The synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated.
Cell vigorously grows and metabolises
Growth and final preparation for division
Anchoring junctions that prevent cells from being pulled apart. Also, allow for communication.
protein core + large polysaccharides. Traps water in varying amounts affecting the viscosity of the ground substance
Three types of connective tissue fibers
Collagen, Elastic, Reticular
most abundant connective tissue type. In areas where the body's weight is supported. high tensile strength
Areas where we have cartilage - like the ear lobe. Allow for stretching.
type of connective tissue found in the spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow. short, fine, highly branched collagenous fibers. Forms a stroma that can support many free blood cells
produce the fibeers for collagen fibers and other types of connective tissues
produce the chondrocytes in cartilage.
build up bone; mature into osteocytes
Produce all the blood cells in the body