Chapter 30 - The Evolution of Seed Plants

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1.) The sporophytes of mosses depend on the gametophytes for water and nutrition. In seed plants, the reverse is true. From which seed plant sporophyte structure(s) do the immature (unfertilized) gametophytes directly gain water and nutrition?

a.) Sporophylls
b.) Embryos
c.) Sporangia
d.) Sporopollenin
e.) Ovary

c.) Sporangia

2.) Which of the following is not true concerning the sporophyte or gametophyte generations of flowering plants?

a.) The flower is composed of gametophyte tissue only.
b.) The sporophyte generation is dominant.
c.) The sporophyte generation is what we see when looking at a large plant.
d.) The gametophyte generation is not photosynthetic.
e.) The gametophyte generation consists of relatively few cells within the flower

a.) The flower is composed of gametophyte tissue only.

3.) Which of the following is an ongoing trend in the evolution of land plants?
a.) Decrease in the size of the leaf
b.) Reduction of the gametophyte phase of the life cycle
c.) Elimination of sperm cells or sperm nuclei
d.) Increasing reliance on water to bring sperm and egg together
e.) Replacement of roots by rhizoids

b.) Reduction of the gametophyte phase of the life cycle

4.) All of the following cellular structures are functionally important in cells of the gametophytes of both
angiosperms and gymnosperms, except
a.) Haploid nuclei.
b.) Mitochondria.
c.) Cell walls.
d.) Chloroplasts.
e.) Peroxisomes.

b.) Mitochondria

5.) Plants with a dominant sporophyte are successful on land partly because
a.) Having no stomata, they lose less water.
b.) They all disperse by means of seeds.
c.) Diploid plants experience fewer mutations than do haploid plants.
d.) Their gametophytes are are protected by and obtain nutrition from the sporophytes.
e.) Eggs and sperm need not be produced.

d.) Their gametophytes are protected by and obtain nutrition from the sporophytes

6.) Seeds commonly provide for each of the following except
a.) A choice of germination location.
b.) Dispersal.
c.) Dormancy.
d.) A nutrient supply for the embryo.
e.) Desiccation resistance.

a.) A choice of germination location

7.) In addition to seeds, which of the following characteristics are unique to the seed-producing plants?
a.) A haploid gametophyte retained within tissues of the diploid sporophyte
b.) Lignin present in cell walls
c.) Pollen
d.) A and C only
e.) A, B, and C

a.) A haploid gametophyte retained within tissues of the diploid sporophyte

8.) Which of the following most closely represents the male gametophyte of seed-bearing plants?
a.) Ovule
b.) Microspore mother cell
c.) Pollen grain
d.) Embryo sac
e.) Fertilized egg

c.) Pollen Grain

9.) Suppose that the cells of seed plants, like the skin cells of humans, produce a pigment upon increased exposure to UV radiation. Rank the cells below, from greatest to least, in terms of the likelihood of producing this pigment.
1. cells of sporangium
2. cells in the interior of a subterranean root
3. epidermal cells of sporophyte megaphylls
4. cells of a gametophyte
a.) 3, 4, 1, 2
b.) 3, 4, 2, 1
c.) 3, 1, 4, 2
d.) 3, 2, 1, 4
e.) 3, 1, 2, 4

c.) 3, 1, 4, 2

10.) In flowering plants the integuments of the ovule develop into a(n)
a.) Fruit
b.) Cotyledon
c.) Sporophyte
d.) Seed Coat
e.) Endosperm

b.) Cotyledon

11.) A stamen consists of a(n)
a.) Stigma and filament
b.) Stigma and anther
c.) Stigma and style
d.) Anther and filament
e.) Ovary and sepal

d.) Anther and Filament

12.) Where in an angiosperm would you find a megasporangium?
a.) in the style of a flower
b.) inside the tip of a pollen tube
c.) enclosed in the stigma of a flower
d.) within an ovule contained within an ovary of a flower
e.) packed into pollen sacs within the anthers found on a stamen

d.) Within an ovule contained within an ovary of a flower

13.) A fruit is most commonly
a.) A mature ovary.
b.) A thickened style.
c.) An enlarged ovule.
d.) A modified root.
e.) A mature female gametophyte.

a.) A mature ovary

14.) With respect to angiosperms, which of the following is incorrectly paired with its chromosome count?
a.) Egg-n
b.) Megaspore-2n
c.) Microspore-n
d.) Zygote-2n
e.) Sperm-n

b.) Megaspore-2n

15.) Which of the following is not a characteristic that distinguishes gymnosperms and angiosperms from other
plants?
a.) Alternation of generations
b.) Ovules
c.) Integuments
d.) Pollen
e.) Dependent gametophytes

a.) Alternation of generations

16.) Which of the following traits is not shared by most angiosperms?

Parallel leaf venation

17.) Gymnosperms and angiosperms have the following in common except
a.) Seeds.
b.) Pollen.
c.) Vascular tissue.
d.) Ovaries.
e.) Ovules.

d.) Ovaries

18.) In seed plants, which structure/material is properly considered part of a pollen grain?
a.) Sporophyll
b.) Male gametophyte
c.) Sporopollenin
d.) Stigma
e.) Both B and C contribute to the structure of the pollen grain.

e.) Both B and C contribute to the structure of the pollen grain

19.) In terms of alternation of generations, the internal parts of the pollen grains of seed-producing plants are most similar to a
a.) Moss sporophyte.
b.) Moss gametophyte bearing both male and female gametangia.
c.) Fern sporophyte.
d.) Hermaphroditic fern gametophyte.
e.) Fern gametophyte bearing only antheridia.

e.) Fern gametophyte bearing only antheridia

20.) Which of these is most important in making the typical seed more resistant to adverse conditions than the
typical spore?
a.) A different type of sporopollenin
b.) An internal reservoir of liquid water
c.) Integument(s)
d.) Ability to be dispersed
e.) Waxy cuticle

c.) Integument(s)

21.) Gymnosperms differ from both extinct and extant ferns because they
a.) Are woody.
b.) Have macrophylls.
c.) Have pollen.
d.) Have sporophylls.
e.) Have spores.

c.) Have pollen

22.) The main way that pine trees disperse their offspring is by using
a.) Fruits that are eaten by animals.
b.) Spores.
c.) Squirrels to bury cones.
d.) Windblown seeds.
e.) Flagellated sperm swimming through water.

d.) Windblown seeds

23.) Generally, wind pollination is most likely to be found in seed plants that grow
a.) Close to the ground.
b.) In dense, single-species stands.
c.) In relative isolation from other members of the same species.
d.) Along coastlines where prevailing winds blow from the land out to sea.
e.) In well-drained soils.

b.) In dense, single-species stands

e.) in well-drained soils?

24.) Which of the following statements does not describe a portion of the pine life cycle?
a.) Female gametophytes use meiosis to produce eggs.
b.) Seeds are produced in ovulate (ovule-bearing) cones. c.) Meiosis occurs in sporangia.
d.) Pollen grains contain male gametophytes.
e.) A pollen tube enters an ovule through a micropyle in the single integument.

a.) Female gametophytes use meiosis to produce eggs

25.) Which of the following statement is not generally true of the pine life cycle?
a.) Cones are short stems with spore-bearing, leaflike structures.
b.) The pine tree is a sporophyte.
c.) Male and female gametophytes are in close proximity during fertilization.
d.) Pollen grains are very different from pine male gametophytes.
e.) Double fertilization is a relatively rare phenomenon.

d.) Pollen grains are very different from pine male gametophytes

26.) Within a gymnosperm megasporangium, what is the correct sequence in which the following should appear
during development, assuming that fertilization occurs?
1. sporophyte embryo
2. female gametophyte
3. egg cell
4. megaspore
a.) 4, 3, 2, 1
b.) 4, 2, 3, 1
c.) 4, 1, 2, 3
d.) 1, 4, 3, 2
e.) 1, 4, 2, 3

b.) 4, 2, 3, 1

27.) Arrange the following structures, which can be found on male pine trees, from the largest structure to the
smallest structure (or from most inclusive to least inclusive).
1. sporophyte
2. microspores
3. microsporangia
4. pollen cone
5. pollen nuclei
a.) 1, 4, 3, 2, 5
b.) 1, 4, 2, 3, 5
c.) 1, 2, 3, 5, 4
d.) 4, 1, 2, 3, 5
e.) 4, 3, 2, 5, 1

a.) 1, 4, 3, 2, 5

28.) Which of these statements is false?
a.) A female pinecone is a short stem with spore-bearing appendages.
b.) A male pinecone is a short stem with spore-bearing appendages.
c.) A flower is a short stem with spore-bearing appendages.
d.) A mature fruit is a short stem with spore-bearing appendages

d.) A mature fruit is a short stem with spore-bearing appendages

29.) Before pollination occurs, what does an individual flower potentially have that an
individual pine cone does not have?
a.) Sporophylls
b.) Both male and female gametophytes
c.) Sporangia
d.) Structures for dispersing seed or pollen grains
e.) Spore mother cells

b.) Both male and female gametophytes

30.) Which trait(s) is (are) shared by many modern gymnosperms and angiosperms?
1. pollen transported by wind
2. lignified xylem
3. microscopic gametophytes
4. sterile sporophylls, modified to attract pollinators
5. endosperm
a.) 1 only
b.) 1 and 3
c.) 1, 2, and 3
d.) 1, 3, and 5
e.) 2, 4, and 5

c.) 1, 2, and 3

31.) Which structure is common to both gymnosperms and angiosperms?
a.) Anthers
b.) Atigma
c.) Ovule
d.) Ovary
e.) Carpel

c.) Ovule

32.) A botanist discovers a new species of land plant with a dominant sporophyte, chlorophylls a and b, and cell
walls made of cellulose. In assigning this plant to a phylum, all of the following would provide useful information except whether or not the plant has
a.) Endosperm
b.) Seeds
c.) Sperm that lack flagella
d.) Flowers
e.) Spores

e.) Spores

33.) What is true of stamens, sepals, petals, carpels, and pinecone scales?
a.) They are female reproductive parts.
b.) None are capable of photosynthesis.
c.) They are modified leaves.
d.) They are found on flowers.
e.) They are found on angiosperms.

c.) They are modified leaves

34.) Reptilian embryos are protected from desiccation by a leathery shell. Similarly, sporophytes of both gymnosperms and angiosperms protect embryos within ________, and they also protect male gametophytes against desiccation using ________.
a.) Ovules : waxy cuticle
b.) Ovaries : filaments
c.) Fruits : stamens
d.) Pollen grains : waxy cuticle
e.) Integuments : sporopollenin

e.) Integuments : sporopollenin

35.) Match the various structures of seed plants with the proper sex and generation (A-D) that most directly produces them.

Scale of ovulate (ovule-bearing) pine cone

a.) male gametophyte
b.) female gametophyte
c.) male sporophyte
d.) female sporophyte

d.) Female sporophyte

36.) For the following questions, match the various structures of seed plants with the proper sex and generation (A-D) that most directly produces them.

Integument of pine nut

a.) male gametophyte
b.) female gametophyte
c.) male sporophyte
d.) female sporophyte

d.) Female sporophyte

37.) For the following questions, match the various structures of seed plants with the proper sex and generation (A-D) that most directly produces them.

Egg cell in the embryo sac

a.) male gametophyte
b.) female gametophyte
c.) male sporophyte
d.) female sporophyte

b.) Female gametophyte

38.) For the following questions, match the various structures of seed plants with the proper sex and generation (A-D) that most directly produces them.

Fruit

a.) male gametophyte
b.) female gametophyte
c.) male sporophyte
d.) female sporophyte

d.) Female sporophyte

39.) For the following questions, match the various structures of seed plants with the proper sex and generation (A-D) that most directly produces them.

Pollen tube

a.) male gametophyte
b.) female gametophyte
c.) male sporophyte
d.) female sporophyte

a.) Male gametophyte

40.) Which of these would have been the most likely dietary staple for a 20-foot-tall, bipedal, herbivorous dinosaur of about 100 million years ago?
a.) Moss gametophytes (Bryophyta)
b.) Corn plants (Zea maize)
c.) Cycads (Cycadophyta)
d.) Giant club mosses (Lycophyta)
e.) Watermelons (Anthophyta)

c.) Cycads (Cycadophyta)

41.) All of the following are characteristic of angiosperms except
a.) Coevolution with animal pollinators.
b.) Double internal fertilization.
c.) Free-living gametophytes.
d.) Styles and stigmas.
e.) Fruit.

c.) Free-living gametophytes

42.) All of the following are sporophyte structures except
a.) Immature ovules.
b.) Pollen tubes.
c.) Ovaries.
d.) Stamens.
e.) Sepals.

b.) Pollen tubes

43.) Which of the following statements is not true of monocots?
a.) They are currently thought to be polyphyletic.
b.) The veins of their leaves are parallel to each other.
c.) They, along with the and eudicots basal angiosperms, are currently placed in the phylum Anthophyta.
d.) They possess a single cotyledon.
e.) All of the statements are true.

a.) They are currently thought to be polyphyletic

44.) Carpels and stamens are
a.) Sporophyte plants in their own right.
b.) Gametophyte plants in their own right.
c.) Gametes.
d.) Spores.
e.) Modified sporophylls.

e.) Modified sporophylls

45.) All of the following statements are true of angiosperm carpels except that they
a.) Are features of the sporophyte generation.
b.) Consist of stigma, style, and ovary.
c.) Are structures that directly produce female gametes.
d.) Surround and nourish the female gametophyte.
e.) Consist of highly modified sporophylls.

c.) Are structures that directly produce female gametes

46.) A hypothetical angiosperm opens its flowers only at night. The flowers are brown and emit a putrid odor. The pollinator is most likely to be which organism?
a.) Nectar-eating hummingbird
b.) Nectar-eating bee
c.) Pollen-eating moth
d.) Fruit-eating bat
e.) Detritivorous (scavenging) animal

e.) Detritivorous (scavenging) animal

47.) How have fruits contributed to the success of angiosperms?
a.) By nourishing the plants that make them
b.) By facilitating dispersal of seeds
c.) By attracting insects to the pollen inside
d.) By producing sperm and eggs inside a protective coat
e.) By producing triploid cells via double fertilization

b.) By facilitating dispersal of seeds

48.) In flowering plants, meiosis occurs specifically in the
a.) Spore mother cells.
b.) Gametophytes.
c.) Endosperm.
d.) Gametes.
e.) Embryos.

a.) Spore mother cells

49.) Arrange the following structures from largest to smallest, assuming that they belong to two generations of the same angiosperm.
1. ovary
2. ovule
3. egg
4. carpel
5. embryo sac
a.) 4, 2, 1, 5, 3
b.) 4, 5, 2, 1, 3
c.) 5, 4, 3, 1, 2
d.) 5, 1, 4, 2, 3
e.) 4, 1, 2, 5, 3

e.) 4, 1, 2, 5, 3

50.) Which structure(s) must pass through the micropyle for successful fertilization to occur in angiosperms?
a.) One sperm nucleus
b.) Two sperm nuclei
c.) The pollen tube
d.) Both A and C
e.) Both B and C

e.) Both B and C

51.) In onions (Allium), cells of the sporophyte have 16 chromosomes within each nucleus. Match the number of chromosomes present in each of the onion tissues listed below.

A. 4
B. 8
C. 16
D. 24
E. 32
How many chromosomes should be in a tube cell nucleus?

b.) 8

52.) In onions (Allium), cells of the sporophyte have 16 chromosomes within each nucleus. Match the number of chromosomes present in each of the onion tissues listed below.

A. 4
B. 8
C. 16
D. 24
E. 32
How many chromosomes should be in an endosperm nucleus?

d.) 24

53.) In onions (Allium), cells of the sporophyte have 16 chromosomes within each nucleus. Match the number of chromosomes present in each of the onion tissues listed below.

A. 4
B. 8
C. 16
D. 24
E. 32
How many chromosomes should be in a generative cell nucleus?

b.) 8

54.) In onions (Allium), cells of the sporophyte have 16 chromosomes within each nucleus. Match the number of chromosomes present in each of the onion tissues listed below.

A. 4
B. 8
C. 16
D. 24
E. 32
How many chromosomes should be in an embryo sac nucleus?

b.) 8

55.) In onions (Allium), cells of the sporophyte have 16 chromosomes within each nucleus. Match the number of chromosomes present in each of the onion tissues listed below.

A. 4
B. 8
C. 16
D. 24
E. 32
How many chromosomes should be in an embryo nucleus?

c.) 16

56.) Double fertilization means that angiosperms
a.) Are the only plants that can produce dizygotic twins.
b.) Have embryos that are triploid.
c.) Have two sperm nuclei, both of which unite with nuclei of the female gametophyte.
d.) Have two sperm nuclei, which simultaneously fertilize the single egg.
e.) Produce twice as many embryos per fertilization event as do gymnosperms.

c.) Have two sperm nuclei, both of which unite with nuceli of the female gametophyte

57.) Hypothetically, one of the major benefits of double fertilization in angiosperms is to
a.) Decrease the potential for mutation by insulating the embryo with other cells.
b.) Increase the number of fertilization events and offspring produced.
c.) Promote diversity in flower shape and color.
d.) Coordinate developmental timing between the embryo and its food stores.
e.) Emphasize embryonic survival by increasing embryo size.

d.) Coordinate developmental timing between the embryo and its food stores.

58.) Which of the following flower parts develops into a seed?
a.) Ovule
b.) Ovary
c.) Fruit
d.) Style
e.) Stamen

a.) Ovule

59.) Which of the following flower parts develops into a fruit?
a.) Stigma
b.) Style
c.) Ovule
d.) Ovary
e.) Receptacle

d.) Ovary

60.) All of the following are found in angiosperms except
a.) Tracheids.
b.) Triploid endosperm tissues.
c.) Fruits.
d.) Flagellated sperm.
e.) Carpels.

d.) Flagellated sperm

61.) Angiosperms are the most successful terrestrial plants. This success is due to all of the following except
a.) Animal pollination.
b.) Reduced gametophytes.
c.) Fruits enclosing seeds.
d.) Highly efficient xylem.
e.) Sperm cells with flagella.

e.) Sperm cells with flagella

62.) A plant whose reproductive parts produce nectar should be expected to
a.) Have brightly colored reproductive parts.
b.) Produce sweet-tasting fruit.
c.) Rely on wind pollination.
d.) Have no parts that can perform photosynthesis.
e.) Suffer significant seed loss to sugar-seeking insects.

a.) Have brightly colored reproductive parts

63.) If the "mostly male" hypothesis for the origin of flowers is correct, then the development of which gymnosperm structure below should be controlled by genes most similar to those that control the development of bisexual flowers?
a.) Microsporangium
b.) Megasporangium
c.) Ovule
d.) Scale of ovulate (ovule-bearing) pine cone
e.) Embryo

a.) Microsporangium

64.) Many mammals have skins and mucous membranes that are sensitive to phenolic secretions of plants like poison oak (Rhus). These secondary compounds are probably an adaptation that
a.) Promotes grazing.
b.) Favors pollination.
c.) Fosters seed dispersal.
d.) Decreases competition.
e.) Inhibits herbivory.

e.) Inhibits herbivory

65.) Which feature of honeybees probably arose under the mutual evolutionary influence of flowering plants that are not wind pollinated?
a.) Possessing three pairs of legs
b.) Possessing a metabolism whose rate is influenced by environmental temperature
c.) Possessing an exoskeleton made of chitin
d.) Possessing an abdomen that is densely covered with short bristles
e.) Possessing an ovipositor modified as a non-reusable stinger

d.) Possessing an abdomen that is densely covered with short bristles

66.) The fruit of the mistletoe, a parasitic angiosperm, is a one-seeded berry. In members of the genus Viscum, the outside of the seed is viscous (sticky), which permits the seed to adhere to surfaces, such as the branches of host plants or the beaks of birds. What should be expected of the pericarp if the viscosity of Viscum seeds is primarily an adaptation for dispersal rather than an adaptation for infecting host plant tissues?
a.) It should be drab in color.
b.) It should be colored so as to provide it with camouflage.
c.) It should be nutritious.
d.) It should secrete enzymes that can digest bark.
e.) It should contain chemicals that cause birds to fly to the ground and vomit.

c.) It should be nutritious

67.) For the following questions, match the adaptations of the various fruits below with the most likely means used by the fruit to disperse the seeds contained within the fruit (A-E).

A. animal skin, fur, or feathers
B. animal digestive tract
C. water currents
D. gravity and terrain
E. air currents
The fruit is made of material high in calories.

b.) Animal digestive tract

68.) For the following questions, match the adaptations of the various fruits below with the most likely means used by the fruit to disperse the seeds contained within the fruit (A-E).

A. animal skin, fur, or feathers
B. animal digestive tract
C. water currents
D. gravity and terrain
E. air currents
The fruit is covered with spines or hooks

a.) Animal skin, fur, or feathers

69.) For the following questions, match the adaptations of the various fruits below with the most likely means used by the fruit to disperse the seeds contained within the fruit (A-E).

A. animal skin, fur, or feathers
B. animal digestive tract
C. water currents
D. gravity and terrain
E. air currents
The fruit contains an air bubble

c.) Water currents

70.) For the following questions, match the adaptations of the various fruits below with the most likely means used by the fruit to disperse the seeds contained within the fruit (A-E).

A. animal skin, fur, or feathers
B. animal digestive tract
C. water currents
D. gravity and terrain
E. air currents
The fruit has a heavy weight and spheroidal shape

d.) Gravity and terrain

71.) For the following questions, match the adaptations of the various fruits below with the most likely means used by the fruit to disperse the seeds contained within the fruit (A-E).

A. animal skin, fur, or feathers
B. animal digestive tract
C. water currents
D. gravity and terrain
E. air currents
The fruit has light, fibrous plumes or puffs

e.) Air currents

72.) Over human history, which process has been most important in improving the features of plants that have long been used by humans as staple foods?
a.) Genetic engineering
b.) Artificial selection
c.) Natural selection
d.) Sexual selection
e.) Pesticide and herbicide application

b.) Artificial selection

73.) What is the greatest threat to plant diversity?
a.) Insects
b.) Grazing and browsing by animals
c.) Pathogenic fungi
d.) Competition with other plants
e.) Human population growth

e.) Human population growth

74.) Which of the following is not a valid argument for preserving tropical forests?
a.) People in the tropics do not need to increase agricultural output.
b.) Many organisms are becoming extinct.
c.) Plants that are possible sources of medicines are being lost.
d.) Plants that could be developed into new crops are being lost.
e.) Clearing land for agriculture results in soil destruction.

a.) People in the tropics do not need to increase agricultural output

75.) Assume that a botanist was visiting a tropical region for the purpose of discovering plants with medicinal properties. All of the following might be ways of identifying potentially useful plants except
a.) Observing which plants sick animals seek out.
b.) Observing which plants are the most used food plants.
c.) Observing which plants animals do not eat.
d.) Collecting plants and subjecting them to chemical analysis.
e.) Asking local people which plants they use as medicine.

b.) Observing which plants are the most used food plants

76.) In pines, an embryo is a(n) ________.
a.) Seed
b.) Immature sporophyte
c.) Food reserve for the immature sporophyte
d.) Immature male gametophyte
e.) Immature female gametophyte

a.) Seed

77.) In pine trees, pollen grains get to the ovule via the
a.) Micropyle.
b.) Eggs.
c.) Megaspore.
d.) Pollen cone.
e.) Integument.

a.) Micropyle

78.) In pine trees, microsporangia form ________ microspores by ________.
a.) Triploid; fertilization
b.) Diploid; mitosis
c.) Diploid; meiosis
d.) Haploid; mitosis
e.) Haploid; meiosis

e.) Haploid; meiosis

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