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chapter 29

desiccation

drying out
cover skin with water impermeable layer

cuticle

waxy later on epidermis

stomo(ata)

openings in cuticle for gas exchange

root system

underground sytstem
anchors
absorbs water

shoot system

above ground
stems, leaves, reproductive parts

xylem

water from roots -> leaves

phloem

sugars from leaves -> roots

gametophytes

make gametes - sperm and eggs
fragile

sporophytes

makes spores, heavy walls

bryophytes

small, few in number, nonvascular

phylum hepatophyta

liverworts (herbs)

phylum anthocerophyta

hornworts

phylum bryophyta

mosses

exosporic development

outside of the spore

endosporic development

inside the spore

seedless vascular plants

ferns, horsetails, spike mosses

seed plants

pine trees, ginkgo, flowering plants

type 1

large gametophytes, bisexual, exosporic, one kind of spore

type 2

2 kinds of spores, mega & micro spores

type 3

2 kinds of spores, unisexual gametophytes, endosporic, retention of the megaspore

pollination vs fertilization

pollen reaches pollination droplet on ovule vs.
sperm fertilizes the egg

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