A form of energy exhibiting wavelike behavior as it travels through space; can be described by wavelength, frequency, amplitude, and speed. Includes visible light, microwaves, X rays, and radio waves.
The shortest distance between equivalent points on a continuous wave. Represented by λ, the Greek letter lambda.
The number of waves that pass a given point per second. Unit of frequency is the Hertz (Hz) or waves per second (1/s).
The wave's height from the origin to the crest or from the origin to the through.
Includes all forms of electromagnetic radiation , with the only differences in the different types being their frequencies and wavelengths.
The minimum amount of energy that can be gained or lost by an atom.
In energy equation E=hv, h. Value of 6.626x10^-34J*s.
When photoelectrons are emitted from a metal
surface when light of a certain frequency shines on the surface.
A particle of electromagnetic radiation with no mass that carries a quantum of energy.
Atomic Emission Spectrum
A set of frequencies of the electromagnetic waves emitted by atoms of the element.
The lowest allowable energy state of an atom.
de Broglie Equation
An equation that predicts that all moving particles have wave characteristics and relates each particle's wavelength to its frequency, mass, and Planck's Constant.
Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle
States that it is not possible to know precisely both the velocity and position of a particle at the same time.
Quantum Mechanical Model of the Atom
An atomic model in which electrons are treated as waves; also called the wave mechanical model of the atom.
A 3D region around the nucleus of an atom that describes an electron's probable location.
Principal Quantum Number
n, which the quantum mechanical model assigns to indicate the relative sizes and energies of the atoms.
Principal Energy Level
The major energy levels of an atom.
The energy levels contained within a principal energy level.
The arrangement of electrons in an atom, which is prescribed by three rules - the aufbau principle, the Pauli exclusion principle, and Hund's rule.
States that each electron occupies the lowest energy orbital; available.
Pauli Exclusion Principle
States that a maximum of two electrons may occupy a single atomic orbital, but only if the electrons have opposite spins.
States that single electrons with the same spin must occupy each equal-energy orbital before additional electrons with opposite spins can occupy the same orbitals.
The electrons in an atom's outermost orbitals; determine the chemical properties of an element.
Consists of an element's symbol, representing the atomic nucleus and inner-level electrons, that is surrounded by dots, representing the atom's valance electrons.