Psych Chpt 4 Missed Mult Choice

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As far as we know, the primary cause of Alzheimer's disease is:
A. deterioration of neurons that produce the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
B. normal aging, accelerated in some individuals.
C. lack of education or stimulation earlier in life, compounded by obesity.
D. pruning or deterioration of unused neurons over the life span.

a

Your 17-year-old nephew seems to take a lot of risks compared to his sister. He drives faster than she does, he smokes cigarettes, and he has several casual sexual partners. How would an evolutionary psychologist explain the difference between your niece and nephew?
A. Females are attracted to males who appear healthy and bold, which encourages males to behave this way.
B. Biological siblings reared together are generally NOT alike in regards to values and attitudes.
C. Biological siblings reared together are NOT alike in manners and faith.
D. Females are attracted to males who do NOT have the potential for long-term mating.

a

4.2.3
Women, in turn, prefer stick-around dads over likely cads. They are attracted to men who seem mature, dominant, bold, and affluent (Singh, 1995). They prefer mates with the potential for long-term mating and investment in their joint offspring (Gangestad & Simpson, 2000). Such attributes, say the evolutionary psychologists, connote a capacity to support and protect (Buss, 1996, 2000; Geary, 1998). In one experiment, women skillfully discerned which men most liked looking at baby pictures, and they rated those men higher as potential long-term mates (Roney et al., 2006).

According to Eagly and Wood, cultures with gender inequality are more likely to have _________________ than are cultures with gender equality.
A. smaller families
B. greater gender differences in mate preferences
C. smaller gender differences in mate preferences
D. larger families

b

4.2.3
Social expectations also shape gender differences in mate preferences. Show Alice Eagly and Wendy Wood (1999; Wood & Eagly, 2002, 2007) a culture with gender inequality—where men are providers and women are homemakers—and they will show you a culture where men strongly desire youth and domestic skill in their potential mates, and where women seek status and earning potential in their mates. Show Eagly and Wood a culture with gender equality, and they will show you a culture with smaller gender differences in mate preferences.

Clark and Hatfield observed a striking gender difference on college campuses. They observed that a majority of men, but virtually no women:
A. could imagine themselves enjoying "casual sex."
B. agreed to go to bed with a stranger.
C. reported having engaged in uncommitted sex.
D. were willing to have sex with someone with whom they had gone out with only once

b

4.2.3
Casual, impulsive sex is most frequent among males with traditional masculine attitudes (Pleck et al., 1993). Russell Clark and Elaine Hatfield (1989, 2003) observed this striking gender difference in 1978 when they sent some average-looking student research assistants strolling across the Florida State University quadrangle. Spotting an attractive person of the other sex, a researcher would approach and say, "I have been noticing you around campus and I find you to be very attractive. Would you go to bed with me tonight?" The women all declined, some obviously irritated ("What's wrong with you, creep? Leave me alone!"). But 75 percent of the men readily agreed, often replying with comments such as "Why do we have to wait until tonight?" (All were then truthfully told this was just an experiment.) Somewhat astonished by their result, Clark and Hatfield repeated their study in 1982 and twice more during the late 1980s, a high-risk AIDS time in the United States (Clark, 1990). Each time, virtually no women, but half or more of the men, agreed to go to bed with a stranger.

The average woman is different from the average man in which of the following ways?
A. She has 70 percent less muscle.
B. She is 10 inches shorter.
C. She is 5 inches shorter.
D. She has 40 percent more fat.

c

4.5.1
But males and females also differ, and differences command attention. Some much talked-about differences are actually quite modest, as Janet Hyde (2005) illustrated by graphically representing the gender difference in self-esteem scores, across many studies (Figure 4.6). Some differences are more striking. Compared with the average man, the average woman enters puberty two years sooner, lives five years longer, carries 70 percent more fat, has 40 percent less muscle, and is 5 inches shorter. Other gender differences appear throughout this book. Women can become sexually re-aroused immediately after orgasm. They smell fainter odors, express emotions more freely, and are offered help more often. They are doubly vulnerable to depression and anxiety, and their risk of developing eating disorders is 10 times greater. But, then men are some 4 times more likely to commit suicide or suffer alcohol dependence. They are far more often diagnosed with autism, color-blindness, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (as children), and antisocial personality disorder (as adults). Choose your gender and pick your vulnerability.

Which of the following is TRUE regarding heredity?
A. the extent to which variation among individuals cannot be attributed to their differing genes.
B. the extent to which similarities among people are attributable to genes.
C. as environments become more similar, heredity becomes less important as a source of differences.
D. We can never say what percentage of an individual's personality or intelligence is inherited.

d

4.1.4
Using twin and adoption studies, behavior geneticists can mathematically estimate the heritability of a trait—the extent to which variation among individuals can be attributed to their differing genes. As Chapter 10 will emphasize, if the heritability of intelligence is, say, 50 percent, this does not mean that your intelligence is 50 percent genetic. (If the heritability of height is 90 percent, this does not mean that a 60-inch-tall woman can credit her genes for 54 inches and her environment for the other 6 inches.) Rather, it means that genetic influence explains 50 percent of the observed variation among people. This point is so often misunderstood that I repeat: We can never say what percentage of an individual's personality or intelligence is inherited. It makes no sense to say that your personality is due x percent to your heredity and y percent to your environment. Heritability refers instead to the extent to which differences among people are attributable to genes.

Over the last century, Western parents have placed ___________ priority on teaching children to respect and obey parents and ___________ priority on teaching them loyalty to their country.
A. decreasing; increasing
B. decreasing; decreasing
C. increasing; decreasing
D. increasing; increasing

b

Valuing communal solidarity, people in collectivist cultures place a premium on preserving group spirit and making sure others never lose face. What people say reflects not only what they feel (their inner attitudes) but what they presume others feel (Kashima et al., 1992). Avoiding direct confrontation, blunt honesty, and uncomfortable topics, people often defer to others' wishes and display a polite, self-effacing humility (Markus & Kitayama, 1991). In new groups, they may be shy and more easily embarrassed than their individualist counterparts (Singelis et al., 1995, 1999). Compared with Westerners, people in Japanese and Chinese cultures, for example, exhibit greater shyness toward strangers and greater concern for social harmony and loyalty (Bond, 1988; Cheek & Melchior, 1990; Triandis, 1994). Elders and superiors receive respect, and duty to family may trump personal career preferences. When the priority is "we," not "me," that individualized latté—"decaf, single shot, skinny, extra hot"—that feels so good to a North American in a coffee shop might sound more like a selfish demand in Seoul (Kim & Markus, 1999).

Your friend Gwen is quite upset and asks you why she is always the one who cooks, cleans, and takes care of the children the majority of the time. You tell her all of the following EXCEPT:
A. Employed men spend about an hour more per day working than do employed women.
B. Employed men spend an hour less on housework.
C. Employed women have an hour more time to devote to taking care of the children.
D. 90% of the time the mother stays home with the children when they are sick.

c

McGue and Lykken (1992) studied divorce rates among 1,500 same-sex, middle-age twin pairs. Their result was if you have a(n) ___________ twin who has divorced, the odds of you divorcing go up _______ times.
A. fraternal, 0.6
B. fraternal, 1.6
C. identical, 1.6
D. identical, 0.6

c

4.1.2
If genes influence traits such as emotional instability, might they also influence the social effects of such traits? To find out, Matt McGue and David Lykken (1992) studied divorce rates among 1500 same-sex, middle-aged twin pairs. Their result: If you have a fraternal twin who has divorced, the odds of your divorcing go up 1.6 times (compared with having a not-divorced twin). If you have an identical twin who has divorced, the odds of your divorcing go up 5.5 times. From such data, McGue and Lykken estimate that people's differing divorce risks are about 50 percent attributable to genetic factors.

Of the following, who are likely to show greater genetic differences?
A. two individuals from the same small village in Denmark
B. a group of Swedes and a group of Koreans
C. Researchers cannot find any genetic differences in people or populations.
D. a group of Canadians and a group of Koreans

a

When on business in Mexico, you find yourself moving a step __________ from the person speaking with you.
A. nearer
B. closer
C. forward
D. backward

d

In everyday interactions, men are more likely to state their opinions, and women to offer support. However, women tend to become more assertive, and men more empathetic:
A. in democratic societies.
B. in countries where both sexes are elected to political office.
C. in middle age.
D. when men and women receive equal pay.

c

Ants that become less sensitive to the repellants that are sprayed on them and are able to multiply are an example of:
A. natural selection.
B. heritability.
C. mutations.
D. collectivism.

a

Among humans, innovations in behavior and ideas are preserved and transmitted from one generation to another primarily through:
A. norms.
B. collectivism.
C. language.
D. division of labor.

c

4.4
Thanks to our mastery of language, we humans enjoy the preservation of innovation. Within the span of this day, I have, thanks to my culture, made good use of Post-It notes, Google, and a single-shot skinny latté. On a grander scale, we have culture's accumulated knowledge to thank for the last century's 30-year extension of the average life expectancy in most countries where this book is being read. Moreover, culture enables an efficient division of labor. Although one lucky person gets his name on this book's cover, the product actually results from the coordination and commitment of a team of women and men, no one of whom could produce it alone.

The average woman is different from the average man in which of the following ways?
A. She is 5 inches shorter.
B. She has 70 percent less muscle.
C. She has 40 percent more fat.
D. She is 10 inches shorter.

a

Given findings from adoption studies, which of the following scenarios is the MOST likely?
A. A biological brother and sister reared together will be similarly outgoing and agreeable.
B. An adopted brother and sister reared together will be similarly outgoing and agreeable.
C. A biological brother and sister reared apart will share the same political and religious beliefs.
D. An adopted brother and sister reared together will share the same political and religious beliefs.

d

4.3.1
Parents do matter. The power of parenting to shape our differences is clearest at the extremes. Chapter 5 will provide the sharpest examples—the abused who become abusive, the neglected who become neglectful, the loved but firmly handled children who become self-confident and socially competent. The power of the family environment also frequently shows up in children's political attitudes, religious beliefs, and personal manners. And it appears in the remarkable academic and vocational successes of children of the refugee "boat people" fleeing Vietnam and Cambodia—successes attributed to close-knit, supportive, even demanding families (Caplan et al., 1992).

Evolutionary psychologists attribute gender differences in sexuality to the fact that women have:
A. weaker sex drives than men.
B. lower reproductive potential than do men.
C. stronger sex drives than men.
D. greater reproductive potential than do men.

b

Compared to 1960, today's culture has all of the following EXCEPT:
A. a quadrupled rate of reported juvenile violent crime.
B. a tripled rate of teen suicide.
C. a doubled rate of divorce.
D. an escalating rate of anxiety.

d

People all over the world react similarly when they are reunited with loved ones. For example, if you watch people greeting each other at family reunions, they tend to have the same joyful expressions on their faces, no matter what country they come from. This similarity can be attributed to:
A. random errors in gene replication.
B. our shared human genome.
C. our family upbringing being so similar.
D. our cultures being so similar.

b

Shared environmental influences (e.g., the shared home environment of two siblings), generally account for ____________ percent of the differences in children's personality characteristics.
A. around 50
B. more than 60
C. less than 10
D. around 25

c

After rats were housed for 60 days in enriched environments, Kolb and Whishaw (1998) report that the rats' brain weight increased:
A. 8 to 10 percent.
B. 7 to 10 percent.
C. 5 to 10 percent.
D. 6 to 10 percent.

b

Displays of self-effacing humility are most characteristic of those who value:
A. gender-schemas.
B. collectivism.
C. individualism.
D. gender-typing.

b

Concepts of masculinity and femininity that influence our comprehension of the world are called gender:
A. schemas.
B. roles.
C. types.
D. complexes.

a

The average woman enters puberty __________ sooner than the average man.
A. three years
B. four years
C. one year
D. two years

d

According to Plomin and Crabbe (2000), the most powerful potential for DNA is to predict ______ so that steps can be taken to prevent problems before they happen.
A. risk
B. temperament
C. heredity
D. interactions

a

Your sister has an independent study proposal due next week, and she has asked you for help deciding on a topic. She is interested in studying what makes humans so similar to each other. On which of the following subfields of psychology would you recommend she focus?
A. clinical neuropsychology
B. molecular genetics
C. evolutionary psychology
D. biological psychology

c

Six-year-old Alex likes to fix things with his Dad around the house. He grabs his toy tools and sometimes even picks up a real screwdriver to try and help Dad fix whatever is broken. This is best explained by:
A. behavior genetics.
B. evolutionary psychology.
C. gender schema theory.
D. social learning theory.

d

Compared to men, women are at ___________ risk for eating disorders.
A. equal
B. 10 times greater
C. 30 times greater
D. 20 times greater

b

Two individuals are most likely to differ in personality if they are:
A. identical twins who were raised together.
B. identical twins who were raised apart.
C. fraternal twins who were raised together.
D. fraternal twins who were raised apart.

d

The tendency to exaggerate the impact of parents' child-rearing practices on children's personality has been most characteristic of:
A. evolutionary psychologists.
B. Freudian psychologists.
C. behavior geneticists.
D. gender schema theorists.

b

After rats were housed for 60 days in enriched environments, Kolb and Whishaw (1998) report that the number of synapses grew by about:
A. 25 percent.
B. 15 percent.
C. 10 percent.
D. 20 percent.

d

Displays of self-effacing humility are most characteristic of those who value:
A. gender-schemas.
B. gender-typing.
C. collectivism.
D. individualism.

c

_________________ assumes that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male or female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly.
A. Gender schema theory
B. Psychoanalytic theory
C. Social learning theory
D. Piaget's cognitive theory

a

Your friend Gwen is quite upset and asks you why she is always the one who cooks, cleans, and takes care of the children the majority of the time. You tell her all of the following EXCEPT:
A. 90% of the time the mother stays home with the children when they are sick.
B. Employed men spend an hour less on housework.
C. Employed men spend about an hour more per day working than do employed women.
D. Employed women have an hour more time to devote to taking care of the children.

d

Given findings from adoption studies, which of the following scenarios is the MOST likely?
A. A biological brother and sister reared apart will share the same political and religious beliefs.
B. An adopted brother and sister reared together will share the same political and religious beliefs.
C. An adopted brother and sister reared together will be similarly outgoing and agreeable.
D. A biological brother and sister reared together will be similarly outgoing and agreeable.

b

The dramatic increase in Americans' premarital sexual activity over the past half-century best illustrates that sexual behavior is influenced by:
A. testosterone.
B. norms.
C. natural selection.
D. temperament.

b

Your neighbors have three children, and both parents work. Without fail, whenever there is a sick child in the family, the expectation is that the mother will stay home to care for the child. The mother is fulfilling a set of expectations called a:
A. gender identity.
B. gender schema.
C. gender type.
D. gender role.

d

Peter and Paul are identical twins reared apart by different families; however, they both have many similarities such as being postal workers, avid book readers, woodworkers, and each has two children, both males. Critics say that these similarities:
A. are no different than if two strangers spent hours comparing their lives.
B. tell us nothing about the human condition.
C. are strikingly wonderful considering the complexity of the world.
D. give false hope to adopted children.

a

Alzheimers

most important cause of dementia in elderly.

Could include a defiecency in the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.

Eagly & Wood

Suggested that gender differences in conformity were not due to gender per se but to differing social roles

ie. Eagles Scouts are for Boys

Clark and Hatfield

Sent average looking people onto FSU's quadrangle to seek sex from hotties for the evening
75% of men agreed ("why do we have to wait...?")
...not a single woman accepted

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