Apologia Biology Module 11

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Animals that lack a backbone

Invertebrates

Animals that possess a backbone

Vertebrates

An organism possesses spherical symmetry if it can be cut into two identical halves by any cut that runs through the organism's center

Spherical symmetry

An organism possesses radial symmetry if it can be cut into two identical halves by any longitudinal cut through its center

Radial symmetry

An organism possesses bilateral symmetry if it can only be cut into two identical halves by a single longitudinal cut along its center which divides it into right and left halves

Bilateral symmetry

An outer layer of cells designed to provide protection

Epidermis

The jellylike substance that separates the epidermis from the inner cells in a sponge

Mesenchyme

Flagellated cells that push water through a sponge

Collar cells

Cells that move using pseudopods and perform different functions in different animals

Amoebocytes

A cluster of cells encased in a hard, spicule-reinforced shell

Gemmule

The sessile, tubular form of a cnidarian with a mouth and tentacles at one end and a basal disk at the other

Polyp

A free-swimming cnidarian with a bell-shaped body and tentacles

Medusa

Animal tissue consisting of one or more layers of cells that have only one free surface, because the other surface adheres to a membrane or other substance

Epithelium

The jellylike substance that separates the epithelial cells in a cnidarian

Mesoglea

Small capsules that contain a toxin which is injected into prey or predators

Nematocysts

Organs that produce sperm

Testes

Organs that produce eggs

Ovaries

The end of an animal that contains its head

Anterior end

The end of an animal that contains its tail

Posterior end

A system designed to transport food and other necessary substances throughout a creature's body

Circulatory system

A system of sensitive cells that respond to stimuli such as sound, touch, and taste

Nervous system

Masses of nerve cell bodies

Ganglia (singular: ganglion)

Possessing both the male and the female reproductive organs

Hermaphroditic

The ability to regrow a missing part of the body

Regeneration

A sheath of tissue that encloses the vital organs of a mollusk, makes the mollusk's shell, and performs respiration

Mantle

A tough, multilayered structure secreted by the mantle, generally used for protection, but sometimes for body support

Shell

A hump that contains a mollusk's heart, digestive, and excretory organs

Visceral hump

A muscular organ that is used for locomotion and takes a variety of forms depending on the animal

Foot

An organ covered with teeth that mollusks use to scrape food into their mouths

Radula

An organism with a single shell

Univalve

An organism with two shells

Bivalve

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