Each toe has three interphalangeal joints except for the great toe which has only two
During both walking and running there is a point where neither foot is touching the ground
The medial malleolus is an anatomical landmark located on the fibula
Toe flexion is movement of toes toward plantar surface of the foot.
Heel-strike normally occurs by landing on the heel with the foot in supination and the leg in external rotation
The vertebral column is composed of 24 articulating vertebrae
The spinous processes are located anterior with respect to the vertebral bodies
Functions of the abdominal muscles include assisting in spinal stabilization and respiration
All of the erector spinae muscles run horizontally parallel to the spinal column
The linea alba runs vertically from the xiphoid process through the umbilicus to the pubis and divides the rectus abdominis
The rectus abdominis muscle can control the tilt of the pelvis when contracting
The posterior portion of the trunk contains the abdominal muscles
Sit-ups are an excellent exercise for strengthening the erector spinae muscles
Muscles may shorten or lengthen in the absence of a contraction through passive movement caused by other contracting muscles
Concentric muscle actions are the shortening contraction of muscles against gravity or a resistance
Eccentric actions occur when muscles lengthen under tension to control the joints moving with gravity or a resistance.
The "Said" principle is applicable in every form of muscle training as well as to the systems of body
The specific needs of each individual must be specifically addressed when designing an exercise program
Many types of back pain and other physical ailments can be avoided through proper maintenance of the musculoskeletal system
When performing a "squat" exercise the hip is extended during the lowering phase
The rowing exercise is a closed kinetic chain exercise
Flexor hallucis longus, flexor digitorum longus, tibialis posterior
Which of the following is the correct order starting from the most posterior aspect of the distal lower leg/ankle and moving medially
Which of the following muscles is included in the anterior compartment
Flexor digitorum longus
Which of the following muscles has its insertion on the base of the distal phalanx of each of the four lesser toes
Which of the following muscles has its insertion on the posterior surface of the calcaneus
Flexor hallucis longus
Which of the following muscles can perform flexion of the great toe when concentrically contracting
Flexor hallucis longus
Which of the following muscles does not perform eversion of the foot
Which of the following muscles does not perform plantar flexion
Extensor hallucis longus
Which of the following muscles can perform extension of the great toe when concentrically contracting
Tibialis posterior, flexor digitorum longus, flexor hallucis longus
The "Tom, Dick, and Harry" phrase refers to the?
Gastrocnemius and soleus
Triceps surae refers to the?
Both of the above choices are correct
Which of the following statements is not correct regarding the abdominal muscles?
Which of the following muscles would not be concentrically active when attempting to place the right ear on the right shoulder while lying on the left side
All of the above choices are correct
Which of the following statements is correct regarding the diaphragm muscle
Right splenius capitus
Which of the following muscles contract concentrically to cause extension of the head, right cervical rotation, and right cervical lateral flexion?
Left internal oblique abdominal and right external oblique abdominal
When performing the up portion of the sit-up with rotation to the left, which of the following muscles are utilized the most?
The _______ vertebrae serves as a link between the thoracic spine rib cage and the head
The ________ vertebrae serves as a link between the pelvic girdle and the thoracic spine rib cage
Thoracic spine, rib cage, and pelvic girdle
The trunk is composed of the?
Cervical and lumbar
Nearly all movement of the spinal column takes place within the two supportive structures known as the _____ and _____?
Increased posterior concavity of the cervical spine is known as?
The _______ process can be palpated on the posterior surface of the spine when it is flexed.
Spinalis, longissimus, iliocostalis
From medial to lateral the erector spinae muscles are the?
When the descent is at the same speed as gravity no muscular control is exerted
Which of the following statements is true regarding the action of the quadriceps muscle group during squatting?
The strength of the erector spinae muscles are benefited significantly through this exercise
Which of the following statements is not true regarding the "bent knee sit-up" exercise?
Which of the following is not an agonist muscle of shoulder flexion when performing "alternating prone extension" exercise?
Which of the following is not an agonist muscle of trunk extension when performing "alternating prone extension" exercise?
During the lifting phase of a "dead lift" exercise the agonist muscles of the wrist and hand include all of the following except?
During the lifting phase of a "dead lift" exercise the agonist muscles of the hip include all of the following except?
Which of the following muscles is not activated during an isometric abdominal exercise?
Which of the following muscles actions is performed during the lowering phase of "hip sled" exercise?
Which of the following actions is performed during the return phase of rowing exercise?
All of the following are open chain exercises except for?
The squat and dead lift are similar in that they both strenghthen the?
Eccentric contractions during the return to starting phase
The abdominal curl-up strengthens the abdominal muscles through?
Concentrically during the lifting phase
In the alternating prone extension exercise the hip extensors contract _______?
Which of the following muscles is not strengthened to any substantial degree by abdominal curl-ups without rotation to the right and left?