Articulation and Phonology Test #1

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Why do we need to perform both the OPE and hearing screening?

To be sure that te oral, respiratory and phonator structures and functions are adequate for speech AND that their hearing abilities are adequate for effective therapy.
It can also reveal the causative factor of the reported issue.

What does homorganic mean?

Homorganic means that phonemes are produced in the same place of articulation. Ex. s/t, p/v

Phoneme

A phoneme is the smallest, minimal unit of sounds that creates meaning.

Allophone

Varients of a phoneme that do not change the meaning of a word.

Underlying Representation

How the child things the word is produced.

Why is underlying representation important in phonological analysis?

It is important because if they are hearing "do" for dog it is only natural to label it final consonant deletion in comparison to adult productions. However underlying representation consideration will reveal that the root issue is not DFC, it is that they are hearing/understanding "do" and are repeating just that.

Distinctive Feature

Features that CONTRAST / DISTINGUISH one phoneme from another in a language. Basically, they are a list of articulatory and acoustic characteristics used to describe phonemes.

Non-distinctive Feature

Features that DESCRIBE phonemes, but do not contrast them from another phoneme in a language.

What is the relationship between an allaphone, phoneme, distinctive feature and non-distinctive feature?

Phonemes are single contrasting units of sounds and distinctive features contrast these phonemes in a language and can change the phoneme category. Allophones are variants of a phoneme and are non-distinctive features in a language becuase they allow different sounds to belong in the same category.

Phonetic Drift is when a child goes from producing __________ to producing ___________.

goes from producing ALL SOUNDS to producing SOUNDS IN THEIR AMBIENT LANGUAGE.

With phonetic drift, the child goes from relying on __________ to relying on ___________.

goes from relying on TACTILE REINFORCEMENT to relying on AUDITORY REINFORCEMENT.

When assessing a preverbal child, what's evaluated besides the child's productions? Why evaluate this?

The CAREGIVER'S INPUT is evaluated as well to ensure appropriate modeling and imitation of the child. This shows whether there is a match or mismatch between what the child produces and what the adult is producing to the child.

What is Articulation Development?

Articulation development is the development of the MOTORIC ability to produce speech sounds.

What is Phonological Development?

Phonological development is the development of the knowledge of WHEN, WHERE and HOW to use sounds in speech.

Articulation is...

Production of individual phonemes, phonetic production AND movement between phonemes (ex. /k/, /t/ in cat)

Phonology is...

Grammar/rule-based AND phonemic (meaning-based)

Relational vs. Indpendent Analysis

Relational analysis is when youo compare a child's productions to the adult or correcto form.
Independent analysis is when you describe what the child does, not compare.

Assimilation

Assimilation is the adding of "new" information into an existing schema. This is like changing the student to fit the class.
ex. If a child has a schema (inventory) of p,b,t, and h, they will say "pi" for "fist", as "f" and "st" are not in their schema.

Accomodation

Accomodation is the adjusting of the schema to fit the new information.
ex. If a child has a schema (inventory) of p,b,t and h, they will say "do" for "dog" and add "d" into their schema.

Can and individual's development be both delayed and disordered?

NO

T/F Ommisions are always more severe than substitutions.

False. They can be both be developmental or non-developmental AND typical or atypical, so it would depend on the TYPE OF ERRORS made.

Articulation Development:
Delayed
Disordered
Non-developmental/atypical

Articulation DELAY = mastering the phonemes at a later age than normally developing children.
Articulation DISORDER = mastering the phonemes in an order that is different than normally developing children.
NON-DEVELOPMENTAL or Atypical Artic. dev. = Making errors that normally developing children do not make.

Phonological Development:
Delayed
Disordered
Non-developmental/atypical

Phonological DELAY = eliminating/suppressing the use of phonological processes at a later age than normally developing children. (order we expect them to ditch them, just later)
Phonological DISORDER = eliminating/suppressing the use of phonological processes in an order different than normally developing children. (out of order)
NON-DEVELOPMENTAL or Atypical Phon. Dev. = using processes that are not used by normally developing children.

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