Biology Lab Practical

100 terms by sillow321

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statistics

the science of analyzing masses of data

a statistic

a number to describe a set of data and its behavior. used for describing a sample of a larger body of information.

parameter

describes data from a larger body

variables

the physical features of objects of investigation. they must be measurable in order to be analyzed

frequency distributions

a summary chart, showing how frequently each of the various scores in a set of data occurs

Graphs

pictorial representation of data

line graphs

show trends or changes of one variable with respecto to another

bar graphs

compairs magnatude or size of one or more variables with respect to a single variable

pie graph

shows relative perportions or percentages of variables

dependent variable

depends on other conditions for its value

independent variable

determines the value of the dependent variable

y-axis

where the dependent variable is measured. this axis is verical.

x-axis

where the independent variable is measured. this axis is vertical.

data point

ordered pairs of numbers and results from pairing a dependent and independent variable

range

the highest value in a set of data minus the lowest value

x-coordinate

data value represented on the x-axis on a graph

y-coordinate

data value represented on the y-axis on a graph

interpolation

estimating values between data points plotted on a graph

extrapolation

used to project known data into an area not known, using known data as a guideline

intervals

a range of data values

catagories

grouping that can be represented by a frequency

frequency

number of data per catagory

histograms

bar graphs that display data in intervals

mean

the sum of all x-values devided by n (total number of individual values)

mode

the value that occurs most frequently in a set of data

normal distribution

when most of the data points are clustered around the mean and fewer occur as distance from the mean increases

skewed distribution

if data points seem to be clustered to the right or left of the mean

bimodal distribution

if data has two distinct clusters of data points

standard deviation

the measure, on average, of how much data values differ from the mean set. its the square root of the variance

deviation

the distance of each of the individual x-values is from the mean

n

the total number of variables measured

sample variance

the sum of squares value devided by n

variance

how widly dispersed the x-values are

scientific notation

a clear way af writing large numbers with many zeros

meniscus

when a substance begins to climbe the walls of its containor because of its cohesive and adhesive properties

kilo

10 to the 3rd power

hepta

10 to the 2nd power

deka

10 to the 1st power

meter, liter, gram

10 to the 0th power

deci

10 to the -1st power

centi

10 to the -2nd power

mili

10 to the -3rd power

micro

10 to the -6th power

nano

10 to the -9th power

how to convert c celcius to farenhight

F=(9/5C)+32

valence

the number of electrons in the outermost electron shell that an atom is willing to donate or take from other atoms

covalent bond

a chemical bond in which atoms share electrons

isomers

compounds made of the same elements but have different structures

structural formula

used to show a generalized structure of a molecule

polar

when one side of a molecule posesses a patial posative charge and a partial nagative charge on the other side, due to the greater electronagativity of some atoms in the molecule

types of organic molecules

hydrocarbons, carbohaydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids

functional groups

groups of atoms that change the characteristics of a molecule. organic molecules are made by adding functional groups to hydrocarbons

the functional groups

hydroxyl, carboxyl, carbonyl (ketone, aldehyde), methyl, amines, phosphates, sulfhydryl

ester bond

the chemical bond that holds lipids together

amino acids

the building blocks of proteins

peptide bond

the chemical bond that links amino acids together to form proteins

nucliotides

the building blocks of nucleic acids

RNA

a nucleic acid, the nucliotides of which are made up of ribose sugar, phosphate groups, and a nitrogenous base

adenine

a nitrogenous base in both DNA and RNA, a purine

guanine

a nitrogenous base in both DNA and RNA, a purine

cytosine

a nitrogenous base in both DNA and RNA, a pyrimidine

uracil

a nitrogenous base in only RNA, a pyrimidine

thymine

a nitrogenous base in only DNA, a pyrimidine

DNA

a nucleic acid that is used to store genetic information in a cell. DNA is made up of deoxyribose sugar, phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base

elements

the fundimental substances that cannot be broken down by chemical means

organic molecules

molecules that contain chains or rings of carbon

atom

the smalles unit of matter that makes up an element

inorganic molecules

lacking chains or rings of carbon

carbohydrates

composed of simple sugars, the most abondant organic molecule in life

monosaccharides

the monomers that make up carbohydrates

disaccharides

two monosaccharides attached together with a glycocidic linkage

polysaccharides

composed of many monosaccharides

lipids

many fatty acid chains linked together by glycerol

proteins

composed of many amino acids linked together by peptide bonds

nucleic acids

made up of many nucliotide monomers

ATP

a nucleic acid that functions as an energy carrier throughout the cell

regent of carbohydrate test

iodine

regent for saccaride test

benedict's solution

regent for lipid test

sudan IV

regent for protein test

biuret

differentially permeable

a membrane which ahs the ability to let some molecules pass through while excluding others

dialysis tubing

is used to seperate molesules according to size, has a differentially permeable membrane

acids

substances that release hydrogen ions (H+) when desolved in water

bases

substances that releas hydroxide ions (OH-) when desolved in water

pH scale

measures hydrogen ion concentration of a solution

metabolism

the sum of all the chemical reactions taking place in living cells

enzymes

organic catalysts that speed up chemical reactions without being used up in the process. composed mostly of proteins

catalysts

speed up chemical reactions without being used up in the process. lower the amount of activation energy needed for a chemical reaction to start.

inhibitors

slow down or stop chemical reactions

course of reaction

a diagram to show relationships in chemical reacions

reactant A

at the beginning of a chemical reaction, and breaks into two parts: product B and C

product B

one of the products resulting from reactant A

product C

one of the products resulting from reactant A

activation energy

the extra energy needed to start a chemical reaction

the properties of enzymes

1) made up of proteins and have a globular 3-D shape
2) will catalyze only one type of chemical reaction
3) act at normal cell temp
4) not used up in reactions, therefore they are reusable
5) can be inhibited by other chemicals that react with them and cause them to change their shape

the reactant or substrate in this reaction

hydrogen proxide (2 H2 O2)

products in this reaction

water (2 H2 O) and oxygen gas (O2)

things that can cause enzymes to denature

high temperatures (boiling water bath), acidic and basic environments

the catalysts used in these tests

catalase (organic enzyme), MnO2 (inorganic catalyst)

elements found in the human body

element: symbol: % of human body:
carbon C 18
hydrogen H 10
oxygen O 65
nitrogen N 3

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