Respiratory System

119 terms by jasmin 

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alveol/o

alveolus ( air sac)

bronch/o

bronchus (airway)

bronchi/o

bronchus (airway)

bronchiol/o

bronchiole (little airway)

capn/o

carbon dioxide

carb/o

carbon dioxide

laryng/o

larynx ( voice box)

lob/o

lobe (a portion)

nas/o

nose

rhin/o

nose

or/o

mouth

ox/o

oxygen

palat/o

palate

pharyng/o

pharynx (throat)

phren/o

diaphragm (also mind)

pleur/o

pleura

pneum/o

air or lung

pneumon/o

air or lung

pulmon/o

lung

sinus/o

sinus (cavity)

spir/o

breathing

thorac/o

chest

pector/o

chest

steth/o

chest

tonsill/o

tonsil (almond)

trache/o

trachea (windpipe)

uvul/o

uvula

-pnea

breathing

nose

structure that warms, moistens, and filters air as it enters the respiratory tract and that houses the olfactory receptors for the sense of smell

sinuses

air-filled spaces in the skull that open into the nasal cavity

palate

partition between the oral and nasal cavities; divided into the hard and soft palate

pharynx

throat; passageway for food to the esophagus and air to the larynx

nasopharynx

part of the pharynx directly behind the nasal passages

oropharynx

central portion of the pharynx between the roof of the mouth and the upper edge of the epiglottis

laryngopharynx

lower part of the pharynx just below the oropharynx opening into the larynx and the esophagus

tonsils

oval lymphatic tissues on each side of the pharynx that filter air to protect the body from bacterial invasion-also called palatine tonsils

adeniod

lymphatic tissue on the back of the pharynx behind the nose- also called pharyngeal tonsil

uvula

small projection hanging from the back middle edge of the soft palate, named for its grape-like shape

larynx

voice box; passageway for air moving from pharynx to trachea; contains vocal cords

glottis

opening between the vocal cords in the larynx

epiglottis

lid-like structure that covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the airway

trachea

windpipe; passageway for air from the larynx to the area of the carina where it splits into the right and left bronchus

bronchial tree

branched airways that lead from the trachea to the alveoli

right and left bronchus

two primary airways branching from the area of the carina into the lungs

bronchioles

progressively smaller tubular branches of the airways

alveoli

thin-walled microscopic air sacs that exchange gases

lungs

two spongy organs, located in the thoracic cavity enclosed by the diaphragm and rib cage, responsible for respiration

lobes

subdivisions of the lung, two on the left and three on the right

pleura

membranes enclosing the lung (visceral pleura) and lining the thoracic cavity ( parietal pleura)

pleural cavity

potential space between the visceral and parietal layers of the pleura

diaphragm

muscular partition that separated the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity and aids in respiration by moving up and down

mediastinum

partition that separates the thorax into two compartments (that contain the right and left lung) and encloses the heart, esophagus, trachea, and thymus gland

mucous membranes

thin sheets of tissue that line the respiratory passages and secrete mucus, a viscid (sticky) fluid

cilia

hair-like processes from the surface of epithelial cells, such as those of the bronchi, that provide upward movement of mucus cell secretions

parenchyma

functional tissues of any organ such as the tissues of the bronchioles, alveoli, ducts, and sacs that perform respiration

eupnea

normal breathing

bradypnea

slow breathing

tachypnea

fast breathing

hypopnea

shallow breathing

hyperpnea

deep breathing

dyspnea

difficulty breathing

apnea

inability to breathe

orthopnea

ability to breathe only in an upright position

Cheyne-Stokes respiration

pattern of breathing characterized by a gradual increase of depth and sometimes rate to a maximum level, followed by a decrease, resulting in apnea

crackles/ rales

popping sounds heard on auscultation of the lung when air enters diseased airways and alveoli- occurs in disorders such as bronchiectasis or atelectasis

wheezes/ rhonchi

high-pitched, musical sounds heard on auscultation of the lung as air flows through a narrowed airway- occurs in disorders such as asthma or emphysema

stridor

a high-pitched crowing sound that is a sign of obstuction in the upper airway

caseous necrosis

degeneration and death of tissue with a cheese-like appearance

dysphonia

hoarseness

epistaxis

nosebleed

expectoration

coughing up and spitting out of material from the lungs

sputum

material expelled from the lungs by coughing

hemoptysis

coughing up and spitting out blood origination in the lungs

hypercapnia

excessive level of carbon dioxide in the blood

hypercarbia

excessive level of carbon dioxide in the blood

hyperventilation

excessive movement of air in and out of the lungs causing hypocapnia

hypoventilation

deficient movement of air in and out of the lungs causing hypercapnia

hypoxemia

deficient amount of oxygen in the blood

hypoxia

deficient amount of oxygen in tissue cells

obstructive lung disorder

condition blocking the flow of air moving out of the lungs

restrictive lung disorder

condition limiting the intake of air into the lungs

pulmonary edema

fluid filling of the spaces around the alveoli, eventually flooding into the alveoli

pulmonary infiltrate

density on an x-ray representing solid material within the air spaces of the lungs, usually indicating inflammatory changes

rhinorrhea

thin, watery discharge from the nose

asthma

panting, obsturctive pulmonary disease caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucous membrane, characterized by paroxysmal attacks of wheezing, dyspnea, and cough

atelectasis

collapse of lung tissue

bronchiectasis

abnormal dilation of the bronchi with accumulation of mucus

bronchitis

inflammation of the bronchi

bronchogenic carcinoma

lung cancer

bronchospasm

constriction of bronchi caused by spasm of the peribronchial smooth muscle

emphysema

obstructive pulmonary disease characterized by overexpansion of the alveoli with air, with destructive changes in their walls resulting in loss of lung elasticity and gas exchange

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

permanent, destructive pulmonary disorder that is a combination of chronic bronchitis and emphysema

cystic fibrosis

inherited condition of exocrine gland malfunction causing secretion of abnormally thick, viscous mucus that obstructs passageways within the body, commonly affecting the lungs and digestive tract; mucus that obstructs the airways leads to infection, inflammation, and lung tissue damage

laryngitis

inflammation of the larynx

laryngotracheobronchitis (LTB)/ croup

inflammation of the upper airways with swellin that creates a funnel-shapped elongation of tissue causing a distinct " seal bark" cough

laryngospasm

spasm of laryngeal muscles causing constriction

nasal polyposis

presence of numerous polyps in the nose

pharyngitis

inflammation of the pharynx

pleural effusion

accumulation of fluid within the pleural cavity

empyema

accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity

pyothorax

accumulation of pus in the pleural cavity

hemothorax

accumulation of blood in the pleural cavity

pleuritis/pleurisy

inflammation of the pleura

pneumoconiosis

chronic restrictive pulmonary disease resulting from prolonged inhalation of fine dusts such as coal, asbestos, or silicone

pneumonia

inflammation in the lung caused by infection from bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites, or resulting from aspiration of chemicals

pneumocystis pneumonia

pneumonia caused by the Pneumocystis carinii organism- a common opportunictic infection sen in those with postive human immunodeficiency

pneumothorax

air in the pleural cavity caused by a puncture of the lung or chest wall

pneumohemothorax

air and blood in the pleural cavity

pneumonitis

inflammation of the lung often caused by hypersensitivity to chemicals or dust

pulmonary embolism (PE)

occlusion in the pulmonary circulation, most often caused by a blood clot

pulmonary tuberculosis (TB)

disease caused by the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in the lungs characterized by the formation of tubercles, inflammation, and necrotizing caseous lesions

sinusitis

inflammation of the sinuses

sleep apnea

periods of breathing cessation (10 seconds or more) that occur during sleep, often causing snoring

tonsillitis

acute or chronic inflammation of the tonsils

upper respiratory infectino (URI)

infectious disease of the upper respiratory tract involving the nasal passages, pharynx, and bronchi

arterial blood gases (ABGs)

analysis of arterial blood to determine the adequacy of lung function in the exchange of gases

pH

a measure of blood acidity or alkalinity

PaO2

partial pressure of oxygen measuring the amount of oxygen in the blood

PaCO2

partial pressure of carbon dioxide measuring the amount of carbon dioxide in the blood

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