A description of something you are studying, using only facts that you can see, touch, hear or smell. An observation is not an opinion.
Testable explanation or prediction, for natural phenomena describing a cause and effect relationship; written in the "if...then..." format
The variable that you CHANGE (the variable that the experimenter can manipulate)
The variable which you OBSERVE and measure; this changes depending on the independent variable
In an experiment, the subject(s) being tested (the subjects that are receiving treatment)
In an experiment, the subject(s) who do not receive experimental treatment and are used as a comparison. The "norm"
formed from the lithification (compaction and cementation) of sediments; typically found at the bottoms of oceans and streams
formed from the cooling of lava (extrusive) or magma (intrusive); typically found near volcanoes
a type of mechanical weathering where rocks are broken into small sediments by the continuous refreezing of water
the breakdown of rock that results in a NEW chemical composition. This occurs most often in hot and wet climates
the breakdown of rock into smaller sediments, without changing the rock's mineral composition
the transportation of sediments; water is the primary agent of erosion on Earth (responsible for the Grand Canyon)
the rigid outer layer of Earth, made up of the crust and uppermost mantle (these make up the tectonic plates!)
when 2 plates come together and collide, forming mountains, volcanoes, and ocean trenches. Old lithosphere/crust is destroyed
when 2 plates divide and split apart, forming rift valleys or mid-ocean ridges. New lithosphere/crust is created
Transform Fault Boundary
where 2 plates slide/grind past each other without creating or destroying lithosphere; the most common location of earthquakes
the slowest, but most destructive type of wave from an earthquake. These waves do not travel through the earth, but along the earth's surface instead.
the smaller earthquakes that occur because of continued plate movement after the main shock
formed during an earthquake when underwater earthquakes set off an underwater wave that builds over time
meeting our current needs without preventing or limiting future generations from being able to meet their needs (providing for us today, while saving for tomorrow!)
an alternative and renewable energy source that provides clean energy, however it is expensive to install and is not as effective on cloudy days
resources that can be replenished (replaced) in a short amount of time after they are used
resources that we have in a limited supply; once we use them, we cannot get anymore because they take millions of years to replace (ex: fossil fuels—coal, oil, and natural gas)