The child's cognitive representation of self, the substance and content of the child's self-conceptions.
development that involves thoughts, feelings, and behaviors regarding rules and conventions about what people should do in their interactions with other people
The first stage of moral development in Piaget's theory, occurring from approximately 4 to 7 years of age. Justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed from the control of people.
Piaget 2nd level, aware that rules and laws are created by people and one should consider intentions as well as consequences, The child becomes aware that rules and laws are created by people and that, in judging an action, one should consider the actor's intentions as well as the consequences.
Piaget's concept that if a rule is broken, punishment will be meted out immediately
one's personal sense of being male or female which most children acquire by the time they are 3 yrs old
Expectations for how females and males should think, act, and feel.
social role theory
a theory that gender differences result from the contrasting roles of men and women
psychoanalytic theory of gender
A theory derived from Freud's view that the preschool child develops a sexual attraction to the opposite-sex parent, by approximately 5 or 6 years of age renounces this attraction because of anxious feelings, and subsequently identifies with the same sex parent, unconsciously adopting the same sex parent's characteristics.
social cognitive theory of gender
a theory that emphasizes that children's gender development occurs through the observation and imitation of gender behavior and through the rewards and punishments children experience for gender-appropriate and gender-inappropriate behavior.
gender schema theory
the theory that gende typing emerges as children gradually develop gender schemas of what is gender -appropriate and gender-inappropriate in their culture
A restrictive, punitive parenting style in which the parent exhorts the child to follow the parent's directions and to value hard work and effort. Allows very little verbal exchange - associated with children's social incompetence.
style in which parent is very uninvolved in child's life/children tend to be socially incompetent-especially a lack of self-control
parents are highly involved with their child but place few demands or controls on them/children do what they want - socially incompetence and lack of self-control is associated with this style of parenting
encourages children to be independent but still places limits and controls on their actions/verbal given take is allowed parents are warm and nurturing to child/supports children's constructive behavior-associated with SOCIAL COMPETENCE
behavior engaged in by infants to derive pleasure from exercising their existing sensorimotor schemas
play that involves repetition of behavior when new skills are being learned or when physical or mental mastery and coordination of skills are required for games or sports
Play in which the child transforms the physical environment into a symbol.
play that involves social interactions with peers
Play that combines sensorimotor and repetitive activity with symbolic representation of ideas. Constructive play occurs when children engage in self-regulated creation or construction of a product or a problem solution.
Activities engaged in for pleasure that include rules and often competition with one or more individuals.