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Surface level diversity

differences in easily perceived characteristics such as gender, race, ethnicity, age or disability, that do not necessarily reflect the ways people think or feel but that may activate certain stereotypes

Deep level diversity

differences in values, personality, and work preferences that become progressively more important for determining similarity as people get to know one another better

Discrimination

noting of a difference between things; often we refer to unfair discrimination, which means making judgments about individuals based on stereotypes regarding their demographic group

Biographical characteristics

personal characteristics-such as age, gender, race, and length of tenure-that are objective and easily obtained from personnel records. These characteristics are representative of surface-level diversity

Ability

an individual's capacity to perform the various tasks in a job

Intellectual abilities

the capacity to do mental activities-thinking, reasoning, and problem-solving

General mental ability (GMA)

an overall factor of intelligence, as suggested by the positive correlations among specific intellectual ability dimensions

Physical abilities

the capacity to do tasks that demand stamina, dexterity, strength, and similar characteristics

Diversity management

the process and programs by which managers make everyone more aware of and sensitive to the needs and differences of others

Manager

an individual who achieves goals through other people

Organization

a consciously coordinated social unit, composed of two or more people, that functions on a relatively continuous basis to achieve a common goal or set of goals

Planning

a process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities

Organizing

determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made

Leading

a function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts

Controlling

monitoring activities to ensure they are being accomplished as planned and correcting any significant deviations

Technical skills

the ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise

Human skills

the ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups

Conceptual skills

the mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations

Organizational behavior

a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization's effectiveness

Systematic study

looking at relationships, attempting to attribute causes and effects, and drawing conclusions based on scientific evidence

Evidence-based management (EBM)

the basing of managerial decisions on the best available scientific evidence

Intuition

a gut feeling not necessarily supported by research

Psychology

the science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals

Social psychology

an area of psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another

Sociology

the study of people in relation to their social environment or culture

Anthropology

the study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities

Contingency variables

situational factors: variables that moderate the relationship between two or more variables

Workforce diversity

the concept that organizations are becoming more heterogeneous in terms of gender, age, race, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and inclusion of other diverse groups

Positive organizational scholarship

an area of OB research that concerns how organizations develop human strength, foster vitality and resilience, and unlock potential

Ethical dilemmas and ethical choices

situations in which individuals are required to define right and wrong conduct

Model

an abstraction of reality. A simplified representation of some real world phenomenon

Dependent variable

a response that is affected by an independent variable

Productivity

a performance measure that includes effectiveness and efficiency

Effectiveness

achievement of goals

Efficiency

the ratio of effective output to the input required to achieve it

Absenteeism

the failure to report to work

Turnover

voluntary and involuntary permanent withdrawal from an organization

Deviant workplace behavior

voluntary behavior that violates significant organizational norms and, in so doing, threatens the well-being of the organization or its members

Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)

discretionary behavior that is not part of an employee's formal job requirements but that nevertheless promotes the effective functioning of the organization

Job satisfaction

a positive feeling about one's job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics

Independent variable

the presumed cause of some change in a dependent variable

Four Functions of Management

Planning, organizing, leading, controlling

Attitudes

evaluative statements or judgments concerning objects, people, or events

Cognitive component

the opinion or belief segment of an attitude

Affective component

the emotional or feeling segment of an attitude

Behavioral component

an intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something

Cognitive dissonance

any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes

Job satisfaction

a positive feeling about one's job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics

Job involvement

the degree to which a person identifies with a job, actively participates in it, and considers performance important to self-worth

Psychological empowerment

Employees' belief in the degree to which they affect their work environment, their competence, the meaningfulness of their job, and their perceived autonomy in their work

Organizational commitment

the degree to which an employee identifies with a particular organization and its goals and wishes to maintain membership in the organization

Affective commitment

an emotional attachment to an organization and a belief in its values

Continuance commitment

the perceived economic value of remaining with an organization compared with leaving it

Normative commitment

an obligation to remain with an organization for moral or ethical reasons

Perceived organizational support (POS)

the degree to which employees believe an organization values their contribution and cares about their well-being

Employee engagement

an individual's involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the work he or she does

Core self-evaluations

bottom-line conclusions individuals have about their capabilities, competence, and worth as a person

Exit

dissatisfaction expressed through behavior directed toward leaving the organization

Voice

dissatisfaction expressed through active and constructive attempts to improve conditions

Loyalty

dissatisfaction expressed by passively waiting for conditions to improve

Neglect

dissatisfaction expressed through allowing conditions to worsen

Affect

a broad range of feelings that people experience

Emotions

intense feelings that are directed at someone or something

Moods

feelings that tend to be less intense than emotions and that lack a contextual stimulus

Positive affect

a mood dimension that consists of specific positive emotions such as excitement, self-assurance, and cheerfulness at the high end and boredom, sluggishness, and tiredness at the low end

Negative affect

a mood dimension that consists of emotions such as nervousness, stress, and anxiety at the high end and relaxation, tranquility, and poise at the low end

Positivity offset

the tendency of most individuals to experience a mildly positive mood at zero input (when nothing in particular is going on)

Affect intensity

individual differences in the strength with which individuals experience their emotions

Illusory correlation

the tendency of people to associate two events when in reality there is no connection

Emotional labor

a situation in which an employee expresses organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions at work

Emotional dissonance

inconsistencies between the emotions people feel and the emotions they project

Felt emotions

an individual's actual emotions

Displayed emotions

emotions that are organizationally required and considered appropriate in a given job

Surface acting

hiding one's inner feelings and forging emotional expressions in responses to display rules

Deep acting

trying to modify one's true inner feelings based on display rules

Affective events theory (AET)

a model that suggests that workplace events cause emotional reactions on the part of employees, which then influence workplace attitudes and behaviors

Emotional intelligence (EI)

the ability to detect and to manage emotional cues and information

Emotional contagion

the process by which peoples' emotions are caused by the emotions of others

Personality

the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts to and interacts with others

Heredity

factors determined at conception; one's biological, physiological, and inherent psychological makeup

Personality traits

enduring characteristics that describe an individual's behavior

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)

a personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types

Big Five Model

a personality assessment model that taps five basic dimensions

Extraversion

a personality dimension describing someone who is sociable, gregarious, and assertive

Agreeableness

a personality dimension that describes someone who is good natured, cooperative, and trusting

Conscientiousness

a personality dimension that describes someone who is responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized

Emotional stability

a personality dimension that characterizes someone as calm, self-confident, secure (positive) versus nervous, depressed, and insecure (negative)

Openness to experience

a personality dimension that characterizes someone in terms of imagination, sensitivity, and curiousity

Core self-evaluation

the degree to which an individual likes or dislikes himself or herself, whether the person sees himself or herself as capable and effective, and whether the person feels in control of his or her environment or powerless over the environment

Machiavellianism

the degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means

Narcissim

the tendency to be arrogant, have a grandiose sense of self-importance, require excessive admiration, and have a sense of entitlement

Self-monitoring

a personality trait that measures an individual's ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors

Type A personality

aggressive involvement in a chronic, incessant struggle to achieve more and more in less and less time and, if necessary, against the opposing efforts of other things or other people

Proactive personality

people who identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs

Values

basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct or end-state of existence is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end-state of existence

Value system

a hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual's values in terms of their intensity

Terminal values

desirable end-states of existence; the goals a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime

Instrumental values

preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one's terminal values

Personality-job fit theory

a theory that identifies six personality types and proposes that the fit between personality type and occupational environment determines satisfaction and turnover

Power distance

a national culture attribute that describes the extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally

Individualism

a national culture attribute that describes the degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups

Collectivism

a national culture attribute that describes a tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them

Masculinity

a national culture attribute that describes the extent to which the culture favors traditional masculine work roles of achievement, power, and control. Societal values are characterized by assertiveness and materialim

Femininity

a national culture attribute that indicates little differentiation between male and female roles; a high rating indicates that women are treated as the equals of men in all aspects of the society

Uncertainty avoidance

a national culture attribute that describes the extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them

Long-term orientation

a national culture attribute that emphasizes the future, thrift, and persistence

Short-term orientation

a national culture attribute that emphasizes the past and present, respect for tradition, and fulfillment of social obligations

Perception

a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment

Attribution theory

an attempt to determine whether an individual's behavior is internally or externally caused

Fundamental attribution error

the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors and overestimate the influence of internal factors when making judgments about the behavior of others

Self-serving bias

the tendency for individuals to attribute their own successes to internal factors and put the blame for failures on external factors

Selective Perception

the tendency to selectively interpret what one sees on the basis of one's interests, background, experience, and attitudes

Halo effect

the tendency to draw a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic

Contrast effect

evaluation of a person's characteristics that is affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics

Stereotyping

judging someone on the basis of one's perception of the group to which that person belongs

Self-fulfilling prophecy

a situation in which a person inaccurately perceives a second person, and the resulting expectations cause the second person to behave in ways consistent with the original perception

Decisions

choices made from among two or more alternatives

Problem

a discrepancy between the current state of affairs and some desired state

Rational

characterized by making consistent, value-maximizing choices within specified constraints

Rational decision-making model

a decision-making model that describes how individuals should behave in order to maximize some outcome

Bounded rationality

a process of making decisions by constructing simplified models that extract the essential features from problems without capturing all their complexity

Intuitive decision making

an unconscious process created out of distilled experience

Anchoring bias

a tendency to fixate on initial information, from which one then fails to adequately adjust for subsequent information

Confirmation bias

the tendency to seek out information that reaffirms past choices and to discount information that contradicts past judgments

Availability bias

the tendency for people to base their judgments on information that is readily available to them

Escalation of commitment

an increased commitment to a previous decision in spite of negative information

Randomness error

the tendency of individuals to believe that they can predict the outcome of random events

Risk aversion

the tendency to prefer a sure gain of a moderate amount over a riskier outcome, even if the riskier outcome might have a higher expected payoff

Hindsight bias

the tendency to believe falsely, after an outcome of an event is actually known, that one would have accurately predicted that outcome

Utilitarianism

a system in which decisions are made to provide the greatest good for the greatest number

Whistle-blowers

individuals who report unethical practices by their employer to outsiders

Creativity

the ability to produce novel and useful ideas

Three-component model of creativity

the proposition that individual creativity requires expertise, creative thinking skills, and intrinsic task motivation

Motivation

the processes that account for an individual's intensity, direction, and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal

Hierarchy of Needs

Abraham Maslow's hierarchy of five needs-physiological, safety, social, esteem, and self-actualization-in which, as each need is substantially satisfied, the next need becomes dominant

Lower-order needs

needs that are satisfied externally, such as physiological and safety needs

Self-actualization

the drive to become what a person is capable of becoming

Higher-order needs

needs that are satisfied internally, such as social, esteem, and self-actualization needs

Theory X

the assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, dislike responsibility, and must be coerced to perform

Theory Y

the assumption that employees like work, are creative, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction

Two-factor theory

a theory that relates intrinsic factors to job satisfaction and associates extrinsic factors with dissatisfaction. Also called motivation-hygiene theory

Hygiene factors

factors-such as company policy and administration, supervision, and salary-that, when adequate in a job, placate workers. When these factors are adequate, people will not be dissatisfied

McClelland's theory of needs

a theory that states achievement, power, and affiliation are three important needs that help explain motivation

Need for achievement

the drive to excel, to achieve in relationship to a set of standards, and to strive to succeed

Need for power

the need to make others behave in a way in which they would not have behaved otherwise

Need for affiliation

the desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships

Self-determination theory

a theory of motivation that is concerned with the beneficial effects of intrinsic motivation and the harmful effects of extrinsic motivation

Cognitive evaluation theory

a version of self-determination theory which holds that allocating extrinsic rewards for behavior that had been previously intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation if the rewards are seen as controlling

Self-concordance

the degree to which peoples' reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with their interests and core values

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