Rating Agencies/Role of Audience Research
Use Sophisticated statistical methods to gather and interpret audience Ratings.
Without these NUMBERS the television industry would cease to exist.
Dual Revenue Stream
Form of Newspaper Revenue:
20% of revenue from subscribers.
80% of revenue from advertising
a company that specializes in the creation of ads for placement in media that accept payment for exhibiting those ads.
Agency Holding Company
A firm that owns full-service advertising agencies, speciality agencies, direct-marketing firms, research companies and even public relations agencies
Name and image associated with a product
responsible for selecting media for advertisement placement on behalf of their clients.
individuals responsible for purchasing time and advertising space for the purpose of advertising
Top Media industries by Ad Spending
1.) Broadcast Television
2.) Subscription Television
4.) Pure-play internet
5.) Broadcast and satelite radio
6.) Yellow Pages
7.) Counsumer Magazines
8.) Business-to-business magazines
9.) Pure-play mobile
10.) Out-of-home (billboards)
11.) Other entertainment based advertising (cinema adversting, in-game video game advertsing)
Business to business vs. Consumer Agencies
Businees to business try to persuade people from other companies to buy stuff from them, while consumer agencies persuade the audience
General vs. Specialty Agencies
General Ad Agencies nvites business from all types of advertisers; while specialty agencies only tackle certain types of clinets
Traditional vs. Direct Marketing
Traditional: Creates and distributes persuaive mesages with the belief that they will eventually buy their product
Direct: Focus on consumer mailings, telephone marketing contacts, TV commercials and other appeals to target audiences
Network vs. Stand-alone firms
Agency Network: Advertsising agencies with branch offices in a number of different cities worldwide
Stand-Alone: Full service ad-agency that works with other companies to advertise their products.
Main Production roles in advertising
The basic measurement of advertising efficiency in all media
Location based advertising
The process of sending commercial messages to people based on their geographic position
The hidden-curriculum critique
Says that advertising teaches what America knows and accepts; a program of study that people don't realize they are taking.
Movable Type (Printing Press)
indivudual leters of the alphabet made out of wood or metal that can be reaaranged in any number of combinations to make different words.
Invented by Johannes Guttenberg
Roots of First Amendment
"Freedom of the press"
"Freedom of the press is guaranteed only to those who own one." -A. J. Liebling
The ways in you can get your hands on a product
Middle Mile:Network Neutraility= which is being able to control how media is distributed. Charging per volume and are selective for information they distribute.
Last Mile: Its hard to distribute information to rural areas because of their connection
How category differs from genre
Categories: Fiction, Juvenile, Sociology, Philosophy/Psychology.
Genres are sub-categories such as Romance, Sci-Fi.
Most popular genres
-Literary Fiction/General Fiction
Number of New Titles Each Year
316K new titles each year
Degree of industrial concentration
The number of companies that own that industry.
90% of book industry is owned by seven companies= High degree of industrial concentration
Major Book Publishers
Control 90% of the consumer market:
-Random House (Bertelsmann)
-Simon 7 Schuster (CBS/Viacom)
-Harper Collins (NewsCorp)
-Hachette (Lagardere SCA)
-Holtzbranch (Holt, RInehart and Winston, MacMillan Group)
Editorial Roles in Publishing
Editorial Director --> Maangerial
Acquisitions Editor--> Recriuts and sings new authors and titles
Editorial Assistant-->Line editing
A bestseller is a book that is identified as extremely popular by its inclusion on lists of currently top selling titles that are based on publishing industry and book trade figures and published by newspapers, magazines, or bookstore chains (100,000 hardcovers sold)
Role of wholesalers
1.Wholesaler purchases copies of book.
2.) Sells book to exhibitor
3.) Exhibitor may sell book back to wholesaler and the wholesaler might sell it back to the publisher
Distribute books and even have a non-traditional on demand publication service
Exhibitor that sells books
Ex. Borders, Barnes & Nobles
A book that is made available electronically through e-reader such as the Amazon Kindle
This happens when authors do not go through the traditional publishing process and use self-publishing to get their book out. Also includes the reprints of old titles.
Writing of books for the rise of of small tageted areas of interest
Ex. Extreme Ski Jumping
When people go to a website and request a book and get it printed on-demand.
Differences PR and Advertising
1. Paid Message or Free Coverage
Advertising is paid placement and media coverage that is earned through Public Relations (e.g. a feature story) is free.
2. Consumer Perception
With paid advertising, the customer knows that you provided the message with the intention of trying to sell them your product. When someone reads a third-party article written about your idea or your product (or sees/hears coverage on television or radio), the message is perceived as non-biased
3. Content Control
With advertising, you are controlling the message—the size, what it says, how many times it runs and what medium will send the message. With public relations, you don't have control over how the media presents your message—or if it will even run at all. The press is not obligated to run your news items or cover your event just because you sent them a news release.
4. Writing Style
Colorful and descriptive language with a call to action is the most typical form of advertising (the greatest thing since sliced bread!). You want to motivate consumers to buy your product and of course you are going to make it sound as appealing as possible. In public relations, you are writing in a news-style format. Editors are immune to hype and over-statements about products and events. You still have to be creative about the angles you pitch, but you need to be subtle about it.
5. Consumers or Editors
You aim for your target audience when you create an advertising plan. You tailor your message for the group you are marketing to--be it women, children, 50+, etc. With public relations, you pitch ideas to editors trying to convince them that your event, product, etc. is worthy of a news story or feature article.
Public Relations does have a few advantages over advertising, and one of them is placement. A sizeable print ad will never (or, hasn't so far) run on the front page of a newspaper and many newspapers won't run ads in the upper third of their pages (unless it is a full-page ad). The "news" always gets priority.
You are paying for the advertising space, so you can keep your message in the public's eye/ear for as long as your budget allows. With public relations, you submit a press release for a new product or event once and the pr coverage you generate only runs one time. An editor won't run your same message three or four times in the their publication—it becomes yesterday's news. If it's a hot topic however, you may garner coverage from various departments within the same publication—while the first story may appear in the hard news section, writers from Business, the Living Section, Arts page or even Sports Section may cover the story from their own angle.
8. Contact With Media
A publication's advertising representative will be your main contact when fulfilling an advertising campaign. You remain an anonymous player in the company's marketing plan. With public relations, you represent the company not only with editors, but often times with reporters—through sound bites and written quotes. A good relationship with the media is vital and a complete understanding of the client is essential.